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Weapons Of Karabakh War: The Soviet-Era BM-21 Grad Multiple Rocket Launcher System

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Weapons Of Karabakh War: The Soviet-Era BM-21 Grad Multiple Rocket Launcher System

Click to see full-size image

The BM-21 Grad is a Soviet-made truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher, and a M-21OF rocket were developed in the early 1960s.

BM stands for boyevaya mashina, ‘combat vehicle’, and the nickname grad means ‘hail’.

The complete system with the BM-21 launch vehicle and the M-21OF rocket has designation as M-21 Field Rocket System.

The complete system is more commonly known as a Grad multiple rocket launcher system.

It entered service in the Soviet Union back in 1963, to replace the aging 140 mm BM-14 system.

The launch vehicle consists of a Ural-375D six-by-six truck chassis fitted with a bank of 40 launch tubes arranged in a rectangular shape that can be turned away from the unprotected cab.

The vehicle is powered by a water-cooled V-8 180 hp gasoline engine, has a maximum road speed of 75 km/h, road range of up to 750 kilometres, and can cross fords up to 1.5 m deep.

In 1976, the BM-21 was mounted on the newer Ural-4320 six-by-six army truck.

The truck of the BM-21 has a collapsible canvas cab, removable doors and windscreen, telescopic steering wheel and tie-down points for aiding parachute dropping and landing. A PG-1M panoramic telescope with K-1 collimator can be used for sighting. A spare tire is fitted at the rear of the crew cab.

Weapons Of Karabakh War: The Soviet-Era BM-21 Grad Multiple Rocket Launcher System

Click to see the full-size image

The crew of 3 men can emplace the system and have it ready to fire in three minutes. The crew can fire the rockets from the cab or from a trigger at the end of a 64-metre cable.

The BM-21 GRAD is equipped with a pod of 40 launch tubes of 122 mm caliber arranged in a rectangular shape that can be turned away from the unprotected cab.

The rocket tube arrangement is a single rectangular bank of four layers each with 10 tubes.

The rocket launcher pod is mounted on a mobile elevatable launcher platform which has elevation from 0 to +55º with traverse being 60º right and 120º left.

The rocket launcher weapon system is mounted at the rear of the truck chassis.

The rockets can be either fired singly or in a salvo lasting six seconds. Manual reloading by the two-man crew takes approximately five minutes.

The launcher can traverse a full 360º. The system is limited to firing HE fragmentation-type rockets only.

The BM-21 can launch rockets directly from the cab or remotely from outside of the truck cab with a 64-meter cable. Standard rockets has a maximum firing range of 20 km, but with the use of latest generation of rockets the range can be increased up to 35/40 km.

The number of rockets each vehicle is able to quickly bring to bear on an enemy target make it effective, especially at shorter ranges. One battalion of eighteen launchers is able to deliver 720 rockets in a single volley.


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Azerbaijan MOD: A large number of enemy forces and military equipment were destroyed in different directions of the front.

Free man

They release these videos again after the nightly bombardment of Ganja. An Armenian S-300 AD system been destroyed by Azerbaijani drone strikes. :


Armenia lost most of its armored forces deployed in NK. I think 2 options left for them.

1- Keep trying to hold Azeris with trench warfare and slaughtered like in this video.
2- Try their luck on guerilla warfare, inflict loses as much as possible and try to hold out until the winter is over, then, regroup and counterattack. But frankly speaking, counterattack is not possbile without armored forces.

Well there is option 3, retreat, but I don’t think Pashinyan will accept that.


Unless Armenians battle like the houthis or Russia intervene it will lose

Free man

Armenia loses.
They should agree to a withdrawal and a diplomatic solution, to prevent further death and destruction.


All were about to say the same about Houthies so you never know.Now the situation is Saudi is trapped in yemen.The battle isn’t won unless one side surrenders.

Free man

I agree with you in principle.
But Armenians have no chance. The Azeris will continue to slaughter them from the air. And if the Armenians do more desperate acts like bombing cities at night, they will lose the sympathy of world public opinion.


The Armenian armies were neither Houthis nor Taliban who could fight for a long time. Based on their history, they fought to the death or won.

Free man

The “ceasefire” appears to have ended:


oops 100+ armenian soldiers dead only in this video…

Free man
Samuel Vanguard

Azerbaijan and both Armenia rely on this MRLS which has proven to be an effective fire support weapon and long range strike

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