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The 2S1 Gvozdika is a Russian-made 122mm self-propelled howitzer tracked armoured vehicle. The first prototype was ready in 1969.
The 2S1 entered service with the Soviet Army in the early 1970s and was first seen in public at a Polish Army parade in 1974. The 2S1 Gvozdika has a crew of four soldiers, including commander, gunner, loader and driver.
The 2S1 is actively used by many armed forces around the world but in the Russian army is only in service with reserve units, and was replaced by the 2S19.
Both Azerbaijan and Armenia utilize the 2S1 Gvozdika actively in the hostilities in Nagorno-karabakh.
The 2S1 is armed with a modified version of the 2A31 cannon which is also fitted to the D-30 towed howitzer.
The 122 mm cannon is fitted with a fume extractor and muzzle brake and is held in position, when travelling, by a lock on the hull glacis plate which is operated by remote control by the driver.
The Gvozdika is compatible with all 122-mm munitions developed for the D-30 howitzer. These include fragmentation, HE-FRAG, HEAT, cluster, smoke and illumination projectiles.
A total of 40 rounds are carried, usually 35 HE-FRAG and 5 HEAT. Maximum range of fire with HE-FRAG projectile is 15.2 km.
The main ammunition of the 2A31 howitzer includes high-explosive shells 3OF56 and 3OF56-1 with a contact fuse RGM-2M, 3OF7 and 3OF8 with an AR-30 radio fuse, as well as 3OF24, 3OF24Zh, 53-OF-462 and 53-OF-462Zh, which can be equipped with both contact fuses RGM2 or V-90, and radio fuses AR-5.
The shells have an initial speed of 690 m/s at full charge and a maximum firing range of 15.2 km. For 2S1, the Kitolov-2M adjustable shells have been developed that have the ability to destroy armored vehicles at locations where launchers, long-term defensive structures, bridges, and crossings are concentrated.
The all-welded steel hull of the 2S1 is divided into three compartments with the drivers at the front on the left, engine behind the driver and the turret at the rear. The all-welded steel armor of 2S1 provides protection for the crew against small arms fire and shell splinters.
The chassis of the 2S1 (SAU-122) is a modified chassis of the MT-LB multi-purpose conveyor tractor. In order for the chassis to be able to provide the specified parameters, the design of the MT-LB chassis has undergone significant processing.
Compared to the base machine, an additional pair of track rollers has been introduced into the chassis.
Thus, the chassis consists of seven pairs of rubberized road wheels. There are guide wheels in the rear of the machine, and drive wheels in the front.
The caterpillar track consists of small links with hinges connected by fingers. The width of each truck is 350 mm with a pitch of 111 mm.
2S1 suspension – individual torsion bar. Two-way hydraulic shock absorbers are installed on the first and seventh track rollers.
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