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AUGUST 2020

US Troops Abandon Personal Identification And Military Base Server In Manbij

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The US troops withdrawing from Syria left behind a lot of personal possessions, in addition to some other interesting things, KP.ru reports.

KP’s correspondent, Alexander Kotz arrived in one of the former US camps north of Manbij and found that the SDF had looted all air conditioners, refrigerators, and other household items that are frequently used.

Kotz was warmly greeted by the commandant, who spoke a bit about the situation in the Kurdish territories, which Turkey is advancing on.

“In fact, we do not have a very large part of the population who trusts the pro-Turkish Free Syrian Army,” said Muhamad, the commandant of the camp.  “Many also don’t believe in the government forces. But most of the inhabitants of Rodzhava (as the Kurds call their territories) support the SDF. At the same time, almost everyone in this situation trusts Russia. But if the Syrian government comes here and begins to arrest everyone, then chaos will come to Manbij, the majority will simply run away. The policy of the leadership of the SDF is structured in settlements so as not to interfere in the internal affairs of the population. To make people feel calm and trust us, we gave them more freedom. If Russia gives guarantees that the Syrian government will not arrange repression here, then the people will stay and support Damascus. But if the government does not fulfill these guarantees, then the majority of the population will leave — some to Jarablus, which is controlled by Turkey, and some to Iraqi Kurdistan. We understand that the Syrians will fulfill their obligations while the Russian military is here.”

For example, the US soldier named Joseph Lanning left his dog tags, in addition to a small weapon cleaning kit. He is ought to always carry his token on himself. Thus, he violated one of the unspoken military commandments, declassifying his name. Another soldier abandoned his chevron, with the name Craven.

US Troops Abandon Personal Identification And Military Base Server In Manbij

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US Troops Abandon Personal Identification And Military Base Server In Manbij

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This is one of the numerous examples of very little care being given to what’s left behind and keeping secrets, the US troops were simply in a rush to leave.

The US blew up their command posts, headquarters and weapons depots, but seemed to have left their camps untouched. The Kurdish Militia – the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) moved into them, but they are being driven out now.

The SDF, however, similarly to the US troops appeared to have no interest in taking or even destroying official documents, personal items and even a server with its hard drivers intact.

For example, other things that were left were flags of the United States, as well as a flag with the motto of US Central command of the Special Operations: “Come and Take it.”

US Troops Abandon Personal Identification And Military Base Server In Manbij

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US Troops Abandon Personal Identification And Military Base Server In Manbij

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The Americans left behind children’s drawings:

US Troops Abandon Personal Identification And Military Base Server In Manbij

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Various books were forgotten, such as the Bible, Harry Potter books, as well as Tom Clancy books:

US Troops Abandon Personal Identification And Military Base Server In Manbij

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US Troops Abandon Personal Identification And Military Base Server In Manbij

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And there was also official documentation, which according to all military laws should be either exported or destroyed. The personnel list of the ghost platoon with the call signs of Alpha and Bravo units.

US Troops Abandon Personal Identification And Military Base Server In Manbij

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There were also instructions for “Reconnaissance of the battlefield”, “Features of aerial reconnaissance.”

US Troops Abandon Personal Identification And Military Base Server In Manbij

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But most notably, the US troops left a military base server computer, which they, at least visibly, tried to destroy, but its hard drives appear to be intact. This does not look as a propper example of operational security.

US Troops Abandon Personal Identification And Military Base Server In Manbij

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  • AlexanderAmproz

    Tell me what do you ate I will tell you who you are !

    RP had lost his delicious Native food Culture,

    and moved to the worst US Junk-Food can be imagined !

    US Junk-Food impact on US

    ==========================

    https://www.naturalblaze.com/2018/03/71-percent-military-age-americans-too-sick-join.html

    71% Of Military Age Americans Too Sick To Join, Study Says

    • FlorianGeyer

      ” Another 10% were ineligible due to a criminal record.”

      They join the CIA :)

  • MADE MAKER

    The state of the US Flag shows the mind set of the people and Country

  • Barba_Papa

    Looking at that pile of rubble I wouldn’t call leaving those serves intact. They did try to smash them up. Sure, they could have done better, but with this short notice stuff gets left behind. That’s what you always get when you have to leave in a hurry. This article is just a smear piece, because I recognize the exact same thing when it happens in the MSM. Bad Southfront, bad!

    • Selbstdenker

      Military procedure would be to explode this vital system instead of smashing it, if export could not be guaranteed. Communications equipment, documentation and IT systems are to be handled in a way, that no data can be retrieved from the remains. Normally these systems are to be exported and not left behind. If the system itself is too bulky, the storage facility (HDD) is to be exported.
      This looks like a clear breach of handling procedures (maybe they were not known or wrongly instructed?).

      • Barba_Papa

        When in haste procedure often tends to fall by the wayside. I don’t think it was Soviet military procedure to have thousands of their tanks and guns fall into Nazi hands, and yet they did. Yes, it’s bad that they didn’t blow these servers up, but even then smashed is not exactly intact. I mean, when I drop a HDD chances are I can throw it into the garbage. I reckon that military grade HDD’s are vastly superior, or maybe military recovery programs are way better, but they tried to do something. They didn’t leave them for the Syrians and Russians to find with a nice big bow tie, a package of chocolates and a nice letter that said help yourselves.

        And who knows, maybe this was done on purpose and the moment that Syrian and/or Russian intelligence tries to recover these HDD’s they get either false intelligence, a malignant computervirus or worse, both. Normally I say do not suppose intent when mere human incompetence will suffice, but in warfare the opposite often happens.

        • Harry Smith

          1. The hdd is not operable, when it drops, mostly because of reading/writing head. You can easily read info from the disk if you have some, not so magical, equipment. Every big enough corporation has such kind of devices.
          2. The server on the photo has “hot-swap” hdd bays and USA military technicians could take out all those hdd in couple of minutes. Big chances hdd are there, because otherwise you have to unscrew 2-4 screws on each hdd bay.
          3. Usually, IT pros uses standalone stations to grab info from the unknown source.
          PS: iDirect Evolution 7 satellite modem is spotted. Hope dudes at the central facility reconfigured their modem, because if not – it’s fiasco.

        • FlorianGeyer

          The US troops were not under fire Barba and a small server hardly equates in volume to thousands of weapons lost during WW2 in campaigns involving millions of men.

          The US troops who left the Kurds to their fate were numbered in a few score at most and all they had to face was being jeered at by the Kurds :)

      • FlorianGeyer

        Or just didn’t give a shit.

    • grumpy_carpenter

      It was the server for enlisted men …. they got their porn stash and itunes playlists.

    • FlorianGeyer

      They all knew that a pull out was on the cards and that being the case their bags should have been packed and all sensitive equipment allocated soldiers who were to be responsible for loading such equipment onto their transport and reporting to command that they had done so BEFORE they leave.

      Its not as if they had to walk home.

      The officer in charge is a disgrace.

  • AlexanderAmproz

    https://www.investmentwatchblog.com/89-of-our-senators-and-congress-hold-dual-citizenship-citizenship-with-israel/

    89% of our Senators and Congress hold dual citizenship citizenship with Israel

    March 21, 2018 by IWB

    Facebook0TwitterEmailRSS feed – Syndicate IWBSubscribe To Our Newsletter

    89% of our Senators and Congress hold dual citizenship citizenship with Israel we are in Syria because of Israel ask yourself who is the real traitors to the country sacrificing American soldiers for the benefit of foreign country.

    Corporate U.S. Senators and U.S. Representatives that are Israel Dual Citizens

    govbanknotes.wordpress.com/2017/06/07/us-senators-and-us-representatives-that-are-israel-dual-citizens/

    Here is a list of US politicians who have dual US/Israeli citizenship. Note the head banking and policy advising positions.

    OBAMA ADMINISTRATION

    Jack Lew – Chief of Staff to the President; Treasury Secretary

    David Plouffe – Senior Advisor to the President

    Danielle Borrin – Associate Director, Office of Public Engagement; Special Assistant to the Vice President

    Gary Gensler – Chairman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission

    Dan Shapiro – Ambassador to Israel

    Gene Sperling – Director National Economic Council

    Mary Schapiro – Chairwoman of the Securities and Exchange Commission

    Steven Simon – Head of Middle East/North Africa Desk at the National Security Council

    Eric Lynn – Middle East Policy Advisor

    PAST OBAMA ADMINISTRATION

    Rahm Emanuel (2009-2010) Chief of Staff to the President

    David Axelrod (2009-2011) Senior Advisor to the President

    Elena Kagan (2009-2010) Solicitor General of the United States

    Peter Orszag (2009-2010) Director of the Office of Management and Budget

    Lawrence Summers (’09-’11) Director National Economic Council

    Mona Sutphen (2009-2011) Deputy White House Chief of Staff

    James B. Steinberg (’09-’11 ) Deputy Secretary of State

    Dennis Ross (2009-2011 ) Special Assistant to the President, Senior Director for the Central Region to the Secretary of State

    Ronald Klain (2009-2011) Chief of Staff to the Vice President

    Jared Bernstein (2009-2011) Chief Economist and Economic Policy Advisor to the Vice President

    Susan Sher (2009-2011) Chief of Staff to the First Lady

    Lee Feinstein (2009) Campaign Foreign Policy Advisor

    Mara Rudman (2009) Foreign Policy Advisor Sources: White House

    112 CONGRESS (current)

    THE US SENATE [13]

    Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) Barbara Boxer (D-CA) Benjamin Cardin (D-MD) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) Al Franken (D-MN) Herb Kohl (D-WI) Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) Joseph Lieberman (Independent-CT) Carl Levin (D-MI) Bernie Sanders (Independent-VT) Charles Schumer (D-NY) Ron Wyden (D-OR) Michael Bennet (D-CO)

    HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES [27]

    Gary Ackerman (D-NY) Shelley Berkley (D-NV) Howard Berman (D-CA) Eric Cantor (R-VA) David Cicilline (D-RI) Stephen Cohen (D-TN) Susan Davis (D-CA) Ted Deutch (D-FL) Eliot Engel (D-NY) Bob Filner (D-CA) Barney Frank (D-MA) Gabrielle Giffords (D-AZ) Jane Harman (D-CA) Steve Israel (D-NY) Sander Levin (D-MI) Nita Lowey (D-NY) Jerrold Nadler (D-NY) Jared Polis (D-CO) Steve Rothman (D-NJ) Jan Schakowsky (D-IL) Allyson Schwartz (D-PA) Adam Schiff (D-CA) Brad Sherman (D-CA) Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D-FL) Henry Waxman (D-CA) Anthony Weiner (D-NY) John Yarmuth (D-KY)

    And that’s just the democrats! I’m sure the republicans are just as bad if not worse, but it seems harder to find information on. Here’s another list: american3rdposition.com/?p=12767

    Here’s an explanation of how this used to not be allowed, then the law was changed, and also points out many big-name dual citizenship holders in the Bush and Clinton administrations: http://www.viewzone.com/dualcitizen.html

    Why is this allowed? It is not allowed for regular US citizens to have dual citizenship, is it?

    I think this type of thing is allowed because “Israel first” Zionists essentially own our government, which is because the Rothschilds own the central banking system and have money creation powers and they promote Zionism. So you play by their rules, or you don’t get big money access. This is why most industry monopolies are headed by Zionists. It’s not a random chance thing that the tops of most all industries are super gung-ho about Israel. This is also why they get the most aid, and why they have the biggest lobbying groups.

    And to be clear, I’m not talking about Jews, half of whom reject zionism. I’m talking about the ideological belief system, that says the Israeli government deserves to own Mt. Zion, aka that Palestine needs to be removed and regional security for Israel needs to be ensured in the middle east. Obama is a Zionist, Biden is a Zionist. Bush is a Zionist. So is Hillary, and Trump, as their AIPAC speeches showed quite clearly.

    These big bankers need to stop being able to pull everyone’s strings, but that won’t stop until people realize their money creation abilities are based on legal narratives that come from false hopes and the false appearance of authority. The government should be able to create its own money, not borrow from a private bank in a debt-based money creation system where there will always, mathematically, be more debt owed than money exists, which gives them power over the government because they are the debt collectors.

    The whole thing is an absurd farce to anyone who sees the truth of it.

    “It is well enough that people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning.” – Henry Ford

    http://www.reddit.com/r/conspiracy/comments/4zm640/why_do_so_many_us_politicians_have_dual_usisraeli/?st=jf1r0ugy&sh=17467c91

    • Sparrow

      The last time I knew…there is no conscription. So what be the excuse to occupy, steal, murder and expand? $$$ PTSD is justified guilt.

      • AlexanderAmproz

        Any form of Colonialism is repugnant,
        minorities have to be respected and protected !

        More educated peoples are, more Atheist alike Europe most developed !

        “The US went out of Barbarism straight to decadence without to pass by Civilisation”
        said Clemenceau

        In Geneva resident 62% are from 195 Countries !
        Never observed any form of discrimination since “Ever”,
        at least since the fifties…
        But it’s Cultural since mandatory free School for all was voted in 1536 !
        Public School are better than the Privates.
        Swiss excellent Universities are almost for free, it’s US/UK antipodes !
        ============================

        The Simulacra Democracy

        https://www.counterpunch.org/2017/10/26/the-simulacra-democracy/

        by JOHN STEPPLING

        … a nation in which 87 percent of eighteen- to twenty-four year olds (according to a 2002 National Geographic Society/Roper Poll survey) cannot locate Iran or Iraq on a world map and 11 percent cannot locate the United States (!) is not merely “intellectually sluggish.” It would be more accurate to call it moronic, capable of being fooled into believing anything …”

        — Morris Berman

        I cannot remember U.S. culture ever being quite so compromised by ruling class control. Hollywood turns out one jingoistic and militaristic and racist film and TV show after another. Corporate news is completely controlled by the same forces that run Hollywood. It is the complete capitulation of the liberal class to the interests of the increasingly fascistic U.S. elite. And this didn’t start with Donald Trump. Certainly in its current incarnation it goes back at least to Bill Clinton, and really it goes back to the end of World War Two. The ideological trajectory was formed under the Dulles brothers and military industrial complex — representing U.S. business interests and exhibiting a demand for global hegemony. But once the Soviet Union collapsed, the project was accelerated and intensified.

  • AlexanderAmproz

    https://russia-insider.com/en/history/bolshevism-was-basically-jewish-movement-historical-facts-lenin-andropov/ri22603?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter

    Bolshevism Was Basically a Jewish Movement – The Historical Facts from Lenin to Andropov
    “Stalin had three wives, all of them Jewesses … Svetlana Stalin had a total of four husbands, three of them Jewish. Various authorities allege that (Lenin’s) wife, Nadezhda Krupskaya was a Jewess and that her family spoke Yiddish in the home.”

    Heretical Sat, Mar 2, 2019 | 2200 words 15,732 295
    5.1K
    SHARES

    MORE: HISTORY THE JEWISH QUESTION
    Russia Insider Tip Jar – Keep truth alive!

    Amongst themselves, the Jews are quite candid about their sympathy for and involvement in Bolshevism.

    On 4 April 1919 the Jewish Chronicle: “There is much in the fact of Bolshevism itself, in the fact that so many Jews are Bolshevists, in the fact that the ideals of Bolshevism at many points are consonant with the finest ideals of Judaism.” (Perhaps this explains why the Red Army uses a Jewish star as its symbol?)

    Probably the best-known exposé of the Jewish role in the Bolshevik coup d’état was by Sir Winston Churchill, writing in the Illustrated Sunday Herald of 8 February 1920. Churchill wrote “With the notable exception of Lenin, the majority of leading figures are Jews. Moreover the principal inspiration and the driving power comes from Jewish leaders.”

    Communism was of course founded by Karl Marx whose grandfather was a rabbi by the name of Mordeccai. Marx was given his initial encouragement by a Communist-Zionist by the name of Moses Hess. As founder and editor of the Rheinische Zeitung, the main organ of leftist thought in Germany, he provided Karl Marx with his first important platform. Later, in Brussels, he collaborated with Marx on The German Ideology. It was Hess too who converted to Communism Friedrich Engels, the wealthy textiles magnate who later subsidised Marx from the profits of sweated labour in Britain and Germany.

    When the Bolsheviks overthrew the short-lived democratic government in Moscow and St. Petersburg in October 1917, it was a virtual Jewish coup d’état. The most prominent Jewish Commissar was Trotsky, real name Bronstein. He had been married by a rabbi in 1900, and whilst in exile in New York he had worked for Novy Mir, described in the Church Times (23 January 1925) as a “Yiddish newspaper.”

    The various reporters and diplomats who were there at the time of the “Revolution” have given evidence as to its Jewish nature.

    The widow of the Guardian’s correspondent Mrs. Ariadna Tyrkova-Williams wrote: “In the Soviet Republic all the committees and commissaries were filled with Jews.”

    The most detailed description of Jewish influence in the Bolshevik ‘revolution comes from Robert Wilton, the Russian correspondent of The Times. In 1920 he published a book in French, Les Derniers Jours des Romanofs, which gave the racial background of all the members of the Soviet government. (This does not appear in the later English translation, for some odd reason.) After the publication of this monumental work, Wilton was ostracised by the press, and he died in poverty in 1925.

    He reported that the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party was made up as follows:

    NAME NATIONALITY
    Bronstein (Trotsky) Jew
    Apfelbaum (Zinovief) Jew
    Lourie (Larine) Jew
    Ouritski Jew
    Volodarski Jew
    Rosenfeldt (Kamanef) Jew
    Smidovitch Jew
    Sverdlof (Yankel) Jew
    Nakhamkes (Steklof) Jew
    Ulyanov (Lenin) Russian
    Krylenko Russian
    Lounatcharski Russian
    The Council of the People’s Commissars comprises the following:

    MINISTRY NAME NATIONALITY
    President Ulyanov (Lenin) Russian
    Foreign Affairs Tchitcherine Russian
    Nationalities Djugashvili (Stalin) Georgian
    Agriculture Protian Armenian
    Economic Council Lourie (Larine) Jew
    Food Schlichter Jew
    Army & Navy Bronstein (Trotsky) Jew
    State Control Lander Jew
    State Lands Kauffman Jew
    Works V. Schmidt Jew
    Social Relief E. Lelina (Knigissen) Jewess
    Public Instruction Lounatcharsky Russian
    Religions Spitzberg Jew
    Interior Apfelbaum (Zinovief) Jew
    Hygiene Anvelt Jew
    Finance Isidore Goukovski Jew
    Press Volodarski Jew
    Elections Ouritski Jew
    Justice I. Steinberg Jew
    Refugees Fenigstein Jew
    Refugees (assist.) Savitch Jew
    Refugees (assist.) Zaslovski Jew
    The following is the list of members of the Central Executive Committee:

    NAME NATIONALITY
    Sverdlov (president) Jew
    Avanessof (sec.) Armenian
    Bruno Lett
    Babtchinski Jew
    Bukharin Russian
    Weinberg Jew
    Gailiss Jew
    Ganzburg Jew
    Danichevski Jew
    Starck German
    Sachs Jew
    Scheinmann Jew
    Erdling Jew
    Landauer Jew
    Linder Jew
    Wolach Czech
    Dimanstein Jew
    Encukidze Georgian
    Ermann Jew
    Joffe Jew
    Karkline Jew
    Knigissen Jew
    Rosenfeldt (Kamenef) Jew
    Apfelbaum (Zinovief) Jew
    Krylenko Russian
    KrassikofSachs Jew
    Kaprik Jew
    Kaoul Lett
    Ulyanov (lenin) Russian
    Latsis Jew
    Lander Jew
    Lounatcharski Russian
    Peterson Lett
    Peters Lett
    Roudzoutas Jew
    Rosine Jew
    Smidovitch Jew
    Stoutchka Lett
    Nakhamkes (Steklof) Jew
    Sosnovski Jew
    Skrytnik Jew
    Bronstein (Trotsky) Jew
    Teodorovitch Jew
    Terian Armenian
    Ouritski Jew
    Telechkine Russian
    Feldmann Jew
    Froumkine Jew
    Souriupa Ukranian
    Tchavtchevadze Georgian
    Scheikmann Jew
    Rosental Jew
    Achkinazi Imeretian
    Karakhane Karaim (Jew)
    Rose Jew
    Sobelson (Radek) Jew
    Sclichter Jew
    Schikolini Jew
    Chklianski Jew
    Levine (Pravdine) Jew
    The following is the list of members of the Extraordinary Commission of Moscow:

    NAME NATIONALITY
    Dzerjinski (president) Pole
    Peters (vice-president) Lett
    Chklovski Jew
    Kheifiss Jew
    Zeistine Jew
    Razmirovitch Jew
    Kronberg Jew
    Khaikina Jewess
    Karlson Lett
    Schaumann Jew
    Leontovitch Jew
    Jacob Goldine Jew
    Glaperstein Jew
    Kniggisen Jew
    Latzis Lett
    Schillenkuss Jew
    Janson Lett
    Rivkine Jew
    Antonof Russian
    Delafabre Jew
    Tsitkine Jew
    Roskirovitch Jew
    G. Sverdlof Jew
    Biesenski Jew
    Blioumkine Jew
    Alexandrevitch Russian
    I. Model Jew
    Routenberg Jew
    Pines Jew
    Sachs Jew
    Daybol Lett
    Saissoune Armenian
    Deylkenen Lett
    Liebert Jew
    Vogel German
    Zakiss Lett
    Although Lenin is described as a “Russian,” in fact he was a mixture of various nationalities. It is likely that he was one-quarter Russian, one-quarter German, one-quarter Jewish and at least one-quarter Kalmuck (Mongol), which accounts for his Mongol appearance. Various authorities allege that his wife, Nadezhda Krupskaya was a Jewess and that her family spoke Yiddish in the home.

    A report sent to the British government in 1918 by Mr. Oudendyke, the Dutch consul in St. Petersburg, said that “Bolshevism is organised and worked by Jews.” The report was included in a pamphlet published as a government White Paper in April 1919 entitled Russia No. 1 (1919) A Collection of Reports on Bolshevism in Russia. However, the pamphlet was quickly withdrawn and reissued with various excisions and alterations made.

    In the War Records Division of the United States National Archives there is filed a report from an American Intelligence operative in St. Petersburg. Under Record Group 20; Records of the American Expeditionary Forces Capt. Montgomery Schuyler, G2 Intelligence wrote:

    “The Bolshevik movement is and has been since its beginning, guided and controlled by Russian Jews of the greasiest type.”

    Also in the U.S. National Archives are two telegrams sent by American diplomats in Russia. State Department document 861.00/1757 sent on 2 May 1918 by U.S. Consul Summers in Moscow relates:

    “Jews predominant in local Soviet government, anti-Jewish feeling growing among population.”

    Document 861.00/2205 from Consul Caldwell in Vladivostock on 5 July 1918 describes:

    “Fifty per cent of Soviet government in each town consists of Jews of worst type.”

    In January, 1924, Lenin died from causes variously described as ‘a heart attack,’ brain hemorrhage’ and ‘syphilis.’ His comrades immediately began fighting amongst themselves to see who was to become his successor.

    A relative outsider, Joseph Stalin, came to the fore and purged all competition either by exiling or executing them. Since Stalin was not Jewish, yet nearly all his opponents were, it is often suggested that Stalin was anti-Semitic. This is far from the truth.

    Stalin had three wives, all of them Jewesses. The first was Ekaterina Svanidze who bore him one son, Jacob. His second wife was Kadya Allevijah. She bore him a son Vassili and a daughter Svetlana. His second wife died in mysterious circumstances, either by committing suicide or murdered by Stalin. His third wife was Rosa Kaganovich, the sister of Lazar Kaganovich, the head of Soviet industry. Stalin’s daughter (who in 1967 fled to the USA) then married Lazar’s son Mihail i.e. her step-mother’s nephew. Svetlana Stalin had a total of four husbands, three of them Jewish.

    Stalin’s vice-president Molotov was also married to a Jewess, whose brother, Sam Karp, runs an export business in Connecticut. Just to complicate things even more, the Molotov’s (half-Jewish) daughter also called Svetlana was engaged to be married to Stalin’s son Vassili.

    After the death of Stalin, his successors kept up the tradition, for a report in the B’nai B’rith Messenger relates:

    “To show that Russia treats its Jews well, Soviet Premier Nikita Kruschev this week remarked at a reception at the Polish Embassy that not only he himself and Soviet President Klementi Voroshilov, but also half the members of the Praesidium have Jewish wives. Mr. Kruschev made this remark to Israeli Ambassador Joseph Avidar, who was amongst the guests.”

    (Kruschev’s wife was yet another Kaganovitch.)

    According to a report in The Canadian Jewish News of 13 November 1964 the present Soviet boss Leonid Brezhnev is married to a Jewess, and his children are brought up as Jews. There are a number of prominent Jews in the Soviet government, including Dimitri Dymshits in charge of industry, Lev Shapiro regional secretary of Birobidjan, and Yuri Andropov in charge of the secret police, the KGB. In fact, every secret police chief in Soviet history has been a Jew, from the first Uritsky to the most recent, the murderous Beria. A Jew is also in charge of the Soviet economy – Leonid Kantorovich.

    It is a well-known fact that the Bolsheviks were and are financed by Jewish interests in the West.

    At a Bolshevik celebration rally in New York’s Carnegie Hall on the night of 23 March 1917, a telegram of support from Jacob Schiff of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. was read out. The telegram was reprinted in the next morning’s New York Times. Schiff later tried to deny his involvement, but thirty years later his grandson John admitted in the New York Journal-American (3 February 1949) that the old man had sunk twenty million dollars into the Bolshevik cause.

    Another Western bankers who poured funds into Bolshevik Russia was Olaf Ashbergof the Stockholm Nia Banken. He remained the Soviets’ paymaster until the late 1940s. The London Evening Standard of 6 September 1948 reported a visit by Ashberg to Switzerland “for secret meetings with Swiss government officials and banking executives. Diplomatic circles describe Mr. Ashberg as the ‘Soviet banker’ who advanced large sums to Lenin and Trotsky in 1917. At the time of the revolution, Mr. Ashberg gave Trotsky money to form and equip the first unit of the Red Army.”

    The Bolsheviks also received assistance from Armand Hammer, who still commutes back and forward between New York and Moscow to take care of his business interests in both communities. Hammer’s Occidental Oil Company is at the moment building a 1,600 mile chemicals pipeline in southern Russia. He is also on such good terms with the Soviets that he personally arranges for Soviet art galleries to lend paintings to America.

    Another American-based businessman to help out the Soviet economy is Michael Fribourg, who owns the massive Continental Grain Company. Together with the Louis Dreyfus Corporation, these Jewish speculators were able to buy up vast quantities of cheap American grain in 1972, sell it to the Soviets at a vast profit, andcollect an export subsidy from the U.S. taxpayer.

    In every other East European country, it is exactly the same story:

    In Hungary a Communist revolution was staged in 1919, instigated by the Jew Bela Kun (Cohen). During the three month regime, the country was turned upside down in a reign of murder and terror. Here again, the government was composed almost entirely of Jews. And it was this factor which brought about the regime’s downfall, as the ordinary Hungarians detested Jewish dictatorship. Kun was deposed and fled to the Soviet Union, where he became chief of the secret police, the Cheka, in southern Russia.

    It was not until 1945 that the Jews were able to regain control. Three Russian Jews were installed as the ruling triumvirate, Matyas Rakosi (Rosencranz), Erno Gero (Singer) and Zoltan Vas. Both Rakosi and Gero had been members of Kun’s bloody government.

    In Germany, the Jews also tried to take over there in the chaos that followed the First World War. Aided by funds from the Soviet Ambassador Joffe, Rosa Luxemburg’sSpartacus Bund attempted to overthrow the government. The revolt was quelled and its leaders Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht executed.

    The post-war dictator of Roumania, Anna Pauker, was the daughter of a Bucharest kosher butcher. For a time she earned her living teaching Hebrew. Her father and brother now live in Israel.

    Although Tito was the only non-Jewish dictator behind the Iron Curtain in the late 1940s, he was tutored by the Jew Mosa Pijade. According to John Gunther in Behind the Iron Curtain, “He is Tito’s mentor… Whatever ideological structure Tito may have, he got it from the shrewd old man.”

    Moscow’s puppet government in Czechoslovakia in the late 1940s was run by another Jew, Rudolph Slansky.

    In Poland too, Jews occupied virtually every position of authority in the post-war Communist regime. Prominent among these were Minc, Skryesewski, Modzelewskiand Berman. Jacob Berman gradually eclipsed the others until he became supreme dictator by himself. Also, Gomulka’s wife was a Jewess.

    Even in China, Soviet Jews were at work helping Mao Tse Tung. High up in the Political Department of the Red Army in China were W. N. Levitschev and J. B. Gamarnik.

    From Let My People Go, Empirical Publications, Northern Ireland c. 1976. Authorship unknown.

    https://russia-insider.com/en/history/bolshevism-was-basically-jewish-movement-historical-facts-lenin-andropov/ri22603?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter

    • FlorianGeyer

      Very interesting to see all of that in one document. Thank you. I have saved it.

    • ϜϓſϞ *Türk*

      intresting, reply to me, so i can share something with you

      • AlexanderAmproz

        You are welcome !

        • ϜϓſϞ *Türk*

          The powers that emerged victorious from World War I made a second war almost inevitable by the peace conditions they imposed upon Germany. That second war was later made certain, not by the intentions of Hitler but by the determination of his eternal enemies to destroy the new Germany that he had created..

          The old Austrian Empire was balkanised without respect to its various cultures and nationalities. East Prussia was separated from Germany by a large area ceded to Poland. The Sudeten Germans were placed under Czech control. The coal mining area of the Saar Valley was to be administered for fifteen years by the League of Nations and then a plebiscite held. The corrupt Weimar Republic was forced upon the German nation and the middle classes were robbed of their savings by corrupt finance. There were millions of unemployed and the Sparticist Jewish revolutionary leaders Karl Leibknecht and Rosa Luxembourg were stirring up red revolution.

          ‘The German nation, moreover, was rapidly falling under the control of its alien elements. In the last days of the pre-Hitler regime there were twenty times as many Jewish government officials in Germany as had existed before the war. Israelites of international attachments were insinuating themselves into key positions in the German administrative machine.’

          Whilst large sections of the German nation were struggling for the preservation of their race, we Jews filled the streets of Germany with our vociferations. We supplied the press with articles on the subject of its Christmas and Easter and administered to its religious beliefs in the manner we considered suitable. We ridiculed the highest ideals of the German nation and profaned the matters which it holds sacred.’

          For months now the struggle against Germany is waged by each Jewish community at each conference in all our syndicates and by each Jew all over the world. There is reason to believe that our part in this struggle has general value. We will start a spiritual and material war of all the world against Germany’s ambitions to become once again a great nation, to recover lost territories and colonies. But our Jewish interests demand Germany’s total destruction, collectively and individually. The German nation is a threat to us Jews.’

          Emil Ludwig Cohen wrote in his book The New Holy Alliance, Strasburg, 1938:

          ‘Even if Hitler at the last moment would want to avoid war which would destroy him he will, in spite of his wishes, be compelled to wage war.’

          • AlexanderAmproz

            UK empire best specialty is wrong borders to unsure
            futur wars playing “Divide to Rule” games with Mass
            Starvation Genocides, particularly in Ireland by the
            Queen Victoria and in the Bangladesh by Churchill…

            MI6 also funded “Muslim Brothers” in 1928 to play
            “Pyromaniac-Firemen” still very active and run from
            the Londonistan…. !
            Nazism & Zionism is also a UK machination
            inspired from Gottlieb Leibniz.
            WW1/WW2 were orchestrated by UK/US to destroy Europe
            their main competitors…..(similarly to Iran/Irak War)
            Any form of Colonialism is disgusting, but apparently
            the Ottoman Empire was the less Evil

          • AlexanderAmproz

            https://www.voltairenet.org/article187508.html

            .

            Anglo-American Money Owners Organized World War II

            by Valentin Katasonov

            To mark the 70th anniversary of the Victory against Nazism, we publish a study of Valentin Katasonov on financing of the NSDAP and the rearmament of the Third Reich. The author deals with new documents that confirm the organization of the Second World War by US and UK Bankers, covered by President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, in the hope of destroying the USSR. This study raises new questions that will be addressed in a future article.

            VOLTAIRE NETWORK | MOSCOW (RUSSIA) | 7 MAY 2015

            РУССКИЙ DEUTSCH FRANÇAIS ČEŠTINA СРПСКИ ESPAÑOL NEDERLANDS PORTUGUÊS

            Hjalmar Schacht (left), Hitler’s finance minister, with his close friend Montagu Norman, Governor of the Bank of England from 1920 to 1944. According to documents reveled by the Bank of England in 2012, he Czechoslovak gold was held in London in a sub-account in the name of the Bank for International Settlements, the Basel-based bank for central banks. When the Nazis marched into Prague in March 1939 they immediately sent armed soldiers to the offices of the National Bank. The Czech directors were ordered, on pain of death, to send two transfer requests. The first instructed the BIS to transfer 23.1 metric tons of gold from the Czechoslovak BIS account, held at the Bank of England, to the Reichsbank BIS account, also held at Threadneedle Street. The second order instructed the Bank of England to transfer almost 27 metric tons of gold held in the National Bank of Czechoslovakia’s own name to the BIS’s gold account at the Bank of England.

            The war was not unleashed by frenzied Fuhrer who happened to be ruling Germany at the time. WWII is a project created by world oligarchy or Anglo-American “money owners”. Using such instruments as the US Federal Reserve System and the Bank of England they started to prepare for the next world conflict of global scale right after WWI. The USSR was the target.

            The Dawes and Young Plans, the creation of Bank of International Settlements (BIS), the Germany’s suspension of reparations payments it had to pay according to Paris Peace Treaty and the acquiescence of Russia’s former allies in this decision, large-scale foreign investments into the economy of Third Reich, the militarization of German economy and the breaches of Paris Treaty provisions – they all were important milestones on the way of preparing the war.

            There were key figures behind the plot: the Rockefellers, the Morgans, Lord Montagu Norman (the Governor of the Bank of England), Hjalmar Schacht (President of the Reichsbank and Minister of Economics in the Hitler’s government).The strategic plan of Rockefellers and Morgans was to subjugate Europe economically, saturate Germany with foreign investments and credits and make it deliver a crushing blow against the Soviet Russia so that it would be returned into the world capitalist system as a colony.

            Montagu Norman (1871 – 1950) played an important role of go-between to keep up a dialogue between American financial circles and Germany’s business leaders. Hjalmar Schacht organized the revival of Germany’s defense sector of economy. The operation conducted by “money owners” was covered up by such politicians as Franklin Roosevelt, Neville Chamberlain and Winston Churchill. In Germany the plans were carried out by Hitler and Hjalmar Schacht. Some historians say Hjalmar Schacht played a more important role than Hitler. Simply Schacht kept away from spotlight.

            The Dawes Plan was an attempt following World War I for the Triple Entente to compromise and collect war reparations debt from Germany. The Dawes Plan (as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was an attempt in 1924 to solve the reparations problem, which had bedeviled international politics following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles (France was reluctant to accept it got over 50% of reparations). In 1924-1929 Germany got $2, 5 billion from the United States and $ 1, 5 billion from Great Britain, according to Dawes Plan. In today’s prices the sum is huge, it is equal to $1 trillion of US dollars. Hjalmar Schacht played an active role in the implementation of Dawes Plan. In 1929 he summed up the results, saying that in 5 years Germany got more foreign loans that the United States in the 40 years preceding WWI. As a result, in 1929 Germany became the world’s second largest industrial nation leaving Great Britain behind.

            In the 1930s the process of feeding Germany with investments and credits continued. The Young Plan was a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I written in 1929 and formally adopted in 1930. It was presented by the committee headed (1929–30) by American industrialist Owen D. Young, creator and ex-first chairman of Radio Corporation of America (RCA), who, at the time, concurrently served at board of trustees of Rockefeller Foundation, and also had been one of representatives involved in previous war reparations restructuring arrangement – Dawes Plan of 1924. According to the plan, the Bank of International Settlements (BIS) was created in 1930 to make Germany pay reparations to victors. In reality the money flows went in quite a different direction – from the United States and Great Britain to Germany. The majority of strategically important German companies belonged to American capital or were partly under its control. Some of them belonged to British investors. German oil refinery and coal liquefaction sectors of economy belonged to Standard Oil (the Rockefellers). FarbenindustrieAG chemical industry major wasmoved under the control of the Morgan Group. 40% of telephone network and 30% of Focke Wulf shares belonged to American ITT. Radio and AEG, Siemens, Osram electrical industry majors moved under the control of American General Electric. ITT and General Electric were part of the Morgan’s empire. At least 100% of the Volkswagen shares belonged to American Ford. By the time Hitler came to power the US financial capital practically controlled all strategically important sectors of German industry: oil refining, synthetic fuel production, chemistry, car building, aviation, electrical engineering, radio industry, and a large part of machine-building (totally 278 companies). The leading German banks – Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Donat Bank and some others – were under US control.

            ***

            On January 30, 1933 Hitler was named the Chancellor of Germany. Before that his candidacy had been thoroughly studied by American bankers. HjalmarSchacht went to the United States in the autumn of 1930 to discuss the nomination with American colleagues. The Hitler’s appointment was finally approved at a secret meeting of financiers in the United States. He spent the whole 1932 trying to convince the German bankers that Hitler was the right person for the position. He achieved the goal. In mid-November 1932 17 German largest bankers and industrialists sent a letter to President Hindenburg expressing their demand to make Hitler the Chancellor of Germany. The last working meeting of German financiers before the election was held on January 4, 1933 in Kölnat the home of banker Kurt von Schröder. After that the National Socialist Party came to power. As a result, the financial and economic ties of Germany with Anglo-Saxons elevated to a higher level.

            Hitler immediately made an announcement that he refused to pay postwar reparations. It put into doubt the ability of England and France to pay off WWI debts to the United States. Washington did not object to the Hitler’s announcement. In May 1933 Hjalmar Schacht paid another visit to the United States. There he met with President Franklin Roosevelt and big bankers to reach a $1 billion credit deal.In June the same year Hjalmar Schacht visited London to hold talks with Montagu Norman. It all went down smoothly. The British agreed to grant a $2 billion loan. The British offered no objections related to the Germany’s decision to suspend debt payments.

            Some historians say the American and British bankers were pliant because by 1932 the Soviet Union had fulfilled the 5-year economic development plan to make it achieve new heights as an industrial power. A few thousand enterprises were built, especially in the sector of heavy industry. The dependence of USSR on import of engineering production has greatly dwindled. The chances to strangle the Soviet Union economically were practically reduced to zero. They decided to rely on war and launched the runaway militarization of Germany.

            It was easy for Germany to get American credits. By and large, Hitler came to power in his country at the same time as Franklin Roosevelt took office in the United States. The very same bankers who supported Hitler in 1931 supported Roosevelt at the presidential election. The newly elect President could not but endorse large credits to Germany. By the way, many noticed that there was a big similarity between the Roosevelt’s “New Deal Policy” and the economic policy of the German Third Reich. No wonder. The very same people worked out and consulted the both governments at the time. They mainly represented US financial circles.

            The Roosevelt’s New Deal soon started to stumble on the way. In 1937 America plunged into the quagmire of economic crisis. In 1939 the US economy operated at 33% of its industrial capacity (it was 19% in the heat of the 1929-1933 crisis).

            Rexford G. Tugwell, an economist who became part of Franklin Roosevelt’s first “Brain, a group of Columbia University academics who helped develop policy recommendations leading up to Roosevelt’s New Deal,wrote that in 1939 the government failed to reach any success.There was an open seatill the day Hitler invaded Poland.Only the mighty wind of war could dissipate the fog. Any other measures Roosevelt could take were doomed to failure. [1] Only the world war could save the US capitalism. In 1939 the money owners used all leverage at their disposal to put pressure of Hitler and make him unleash a big war in the east.

            ***

            The Bank of International Settlements (BIS) played an important role during the Second World War. It was created as an outpost of American interests in Europe and a link between Anglo-American and German businesses, a kind of offshore zone for cosmopolitan capital providing a shelter from political processes, wars, sanctions and other things. The Bank was created as a public commercial entity, it’s immunity from government interference and such things as taxes collection was guaranteed by international agreement signed in the Hague in 1930.

            The bankers of Federal Reserve Bank of New York, who were close to the Morgans, Montagu Norman, the Governor of the Bank of England, German financiers: Hjalmar Schacht (President of the Reichsbank and Minister of Economics in the Hitler’s government), Walther Funk (who later replaced Hjalmar Schacht as President of the Reichsbank) and EmilPuhl – all of them played an important role in the efforts to establish the Bank. The central banks of Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Belgium and some private banks were among the founders. The Federal Bank of New York did its best to establish the BIS, but it was not listed as a founder. The US was represented by the private First National Bank of New York, J.P. Morgan and Company, the First National Bank of Chicago – all parts of the Morgan’s empire. Japan was also represented by private banks. In 1931-1932 19 European central banks joined the Bank of International Settlements. Gates W. McGarrah, a banker of Rockefeller’s clan, was the first BIS chairman of the board. He was replaced by Leon Fraser, who represented the clan of Morgans. US citizen Thomas H. McKittrick was President of the Bankduring the war years.

            A lot has already been written about the BIS activities serving the interests of Third Reich. The Bank was involved in deals with different countries, including those Germany was at war with. Ever since Pearl Harbor the Bank of International Settlements has been a correspondent bank for the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. It was under Nazi control during the war years, no matter American Thomas Huntington McKittrick was the Bank’s President. Soldiers were dying on the battlefields while the leadership of BIS held meetings in Basel with the bankers of Germany, Japan, Italy, Belgium, Great Britain and the United States. There, in the Swiss offshore zone, it was all peaceful, the representatives of belligerents quietly worked in the atmosphere of mutual understanding.

            Switzerland became the place where gold seized by Germany in different corners of Europe was transported to for storage. In the March of 1938, when Hitler captured Vienna, part of Austrian gold was transferred to BIS vaults. The same thing happened with the gold of Czech National Bank (48 million USD). As the war started, the flows of gold poured into the Bank of International Settlements. Germany got it from concentration camps and as a result of plundering the wealth of occupied countries (including whatever belonged to civilians: jewels, gold crowns, cigarette cases, utensils…). It was called the Nazi Gold. The metal was processed into ingots to be stored in the Bank of International Settlements, Switzerland, or outside Europe. Charles Higham in his Trading With The Enemy: An Expose of The Nazi-American Money Plot 1933-1949 wrote that during the war Nazi transferred $378 million into the accounts of Bank of International Settlements.

            A few words about the Czech gold. The details surfaced when after the Bank of England’s archives were declassified in 2012. [2] In the March of 1939 Germany captured Prague. Nazi demanded $48 million of national gold reserves. They were told that the sum had already been transferred to the Bank of International Settlements. Later it became known that the gold was transferred from Basel to the vaults of Bank of England. Upon the command from Berlin the gold was transferred to the ReichsbankBIS account. Then the Bank of England was involved in transactions done upon the orders of Reichsbank given to the Bank of International settlements. The commands were retransmitted to London. There was collusion between German Reichsbank, the Bank of International Settlements and the Bank of England. In 1939 a scandal broke out in Great Britain because the Bank of England executed the transactions with Czech gold upon the commands coming from Berlin and Basel, not the Czech government. For instance, in the June of 1939, three months before the war between Great Britain and Germany started, the Bank of England helped Germans to get into their accounts the amount of gold equal to 440 thousand pounds sterling and transfer some gold to New York (Germany was sure that in case of German intervention into Poland the United States would not declare war).

            The illegal transactions with Czech gold were implemented with tacit approval of the government of Great Britain which was aware of what was going on. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir John Simon and other top officials did their best to hide the truth, including outright lies (the gold was returned to the lawful owner or had never been transferred to Reichsbank). The recently declassified materials of Bank of England reveal the truth and show that the government officials lied to cover up themselves and the activities of the Bank of England and the Bank of International Settlements. It was easy to coordinate the joint criminal activities because Montagu Norman, the head of Bank of England, served as the chairman of the board of Bank of International Settlements. He never made secret of his sympathy for fascists.

            The Bretton Woods Conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was the gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, the United States, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II. The conference was held from 1 to 22 July 1944. All of a sudden the issue of the Bank of International Settlements hit the agenda. It was reported that the bank collaborated with fascist Germany. Leaving many details aside, I’d only mention that with great difficulty (some US delegates opposed the motion) the delegates reached an agreement to close the BIS. The decision of international conference has never been enacted. All the discreditable information related to the BIS wartime activities was classified. Today it helps to falsify the history of the Second World War.

            Finally, a few words about Hjalmar Schacht (1877-1970) who served as President of the Reichsbank and Minister of Economics in the fascist Germany’s government. He was a key figure controlling the economic machine of Third Reich, an extraordinary and plenipotentiaryambassador representing Anglo-American capital in Germany. In 1945 Schacht was tried at Nuremberg to be acquitted on October 1, 1946. He got away with murder. The same way it happened to Hitler. For some unexplained reasons he was not in the 1945 leading wartime criminals list. More to it, Schacht returned to his profession like if nothing happened and founded Schacht GmbH in Düsseldorf. This detail may go unnoticed, though it serves as another testimony to the fact that Anglo-American “money owners” and their plenipotentiary representatives in Germany prepared and, to some extent, influenced the outcome of the Second World War. The “money owners” want to rewrite the history of the war and change its results.

            Valentin Katasonov

          • ϜϓſϞ *Türk*

            Modern Zionism has its roots in a 17th century false Jewish messiah by the name of Sabbatai Zevi who claimed to be the promised savior of the Jews that has come to establish the Jewish kingdom in the promised land known then as Palestine. Zevi was a very controversal figure, he not only trashed the Talmud but said to do opposite what God said to do in the Talmud. “Sin” and “guilt” were no more and everything and anything was allowed; the commandments of God in the Torah were now null because according to him the messianic age has arrived and he was the one who was going to redeem them.

            Zevi or Zvi was a kabbalist and occultist who deceived most of the Jews of his time and those who came after him. He was born on Aug. 9, 1626, in Smyrna, Turkey. In 1666 he converted to Islam with some of his followers and took the name Aziz Mehemet. Most of the Jews were disappointed but he told them that he had to become Muslim in order to convert the Muslims to Judaism, and then he turned around and told the Turks and the Sultan that he was to keep in close contact with the Jews in order to convert the Jews to Islam. Thus he was free to go wherever he liked and do whatever he wanted.

            Jacob Frank succeeded Rebbe Berechiah and in eighteen century brought the Donmeh ideaology To Europe. He made an alliance near/in Frankfurt, Germany, with Jesuit Adam Weinhaupt (founder of the Illuminatti and the usurper of the Freemasonic lodges worldwide, specially that of England and Scotland) and the Rothschild empire.

            “A movement of complete evil now took hold. The Jesuits’ goal was the destruction of the Protestant Reformation leading to a return of one pope sitting in judgement on all mankind. The Rothschilds goal was to control the wealth of the planet. And the Frankist vision was the destruction of Jewish ethics to be replaced by a religion based on the exact opposite of God’s intentions [or high-class Satanism]. When these factions blended, a bloody war against humanity, with the Jews on the front lines, erupted.”

            Jacob Frank considered himself to be another messiah. He claimed to be an incarnation of the the Jewish patriarch Jacob. He ordered his 13,000 followers to become Catholics and infiltrate the Catholic church. He referred to the Catholics as the “Esau,” the brother of biblical Jacob while he and his followers were the biblical Jacob. To the Christian Catholics he told that it was time for a reconciliation between “Jacob” and “Esau.” While he told his followers secretly that as Jacob deceived Esau in the story of the Bible, so by the way of deception we will establish a Jewish anti-christ kingdom in Palestine.

            “He [Frank] extended the paradoxical teachings of Shabbati Zvi that the coming of the messianic age had transformed sexual prohibitions of the Bible into permissions and even obligations. According to Frank, engaging in sexual orgies now became the means to purify the soul from its sins. Debauchery became theraphy…Frank convinced his followers that the only way for their special form of Judaism to survive was for them to outwardly become Christians, just as the Donmeh had descended into the world of Islam…In February, 1759, the Frankists told the [Catholic] Church they were ready to be baptized.”

          • AlexanderAmproz

            It’s an excellent exemple of gullible humans tin hat
            foolishness for fairy tales !
            But I do believe it’s like that since “ever”,
            and today it’s just the continuity of it !
            So many useless sufferances and destructions !

            If you didn’t know it, you will like the Basil Zaharoff history

            https://mises.org/library/merchant-death-basil-zaharoff

            The Merchant of Death: Basil Zaharoff

            08/24/2007John T. Flynn

            If the Lord God Jehovah had not created Basil Zaharoff, some novelist sooner or later would certainly have got around to the job. Indeed, it is by no means certain that Zaharoff, as we have him, is not the joint product of God and the fiction writers.

            Lieutenant Colonel Walter Guinness, member for Bury St.Edmonds, committed the blunder against history of referring to Zaharoff in the House of Commons in 1921 as the “Mystery Man of Europe.” Having fixed upon him that fascinating label, the figure of Zaharoff became thereafter a costumer’s dummy upon which the news caricaturists of Europe draped whatever garments would vindicate his reputation.

            Mysterious indeed he is and still more mysterious he became at the hands of the sensational news portrait painters. The mystery begins with his birth. A French biographer, Roger Menevee? records that he was born in Moughliou, or Mugla, on the Anatolian coast. But a German, Robert Neumann, asserts that Zaharoff, testifying in a London court as a young man, said he was born in the Tatavla or poor section of Constantinople, and he notes that the Mugla nativity is attested by an affidavit of a Greek priest made forty-two years after the event and was based upon memory.

            It was never known with complete certainty to what country he owed allegiance. He was a Greek, born in Turkey, who lived in Paris. His right to the ribbon of the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor was questioned in the Chamber of Deputies and M. Clemenceau had to assure the Chamber that “M. Zaharoff is a Frenchman.” But also he was throughout his life the guiding genius of a great British armament concern, acted as a British agent, was a Knight of the Bath, known in England as Sir Basil Zaharoff.

            Journalists said he spoke fluently fourteen languages — which is probably an extravagant exaggeration. They reported how he had confided to a written record the story of his life, filling fifty-eight volumes which he ordered to be burned at his death, while others told how he had himself destroyed the record, two days being consumed in reducing it to ashes in the furnace of his Paris home. Extravagant tales were told of his habits, his amours, his dinners, and the exotic dishes brought fresh by plane from immense distances for his table. But, in fact, the reporters and the historians have produced but little about the personal life and affairs of the man. Searching the extensive but empty records, one fails to discover any documents or letters or speeches or records or meetings or conferences or instances in which the man is actually present. Always one hears that he is somewhere in the background, off in the shadows, pulling the strings, supplying the stratagems and the money.

            Yet it is certain that he remains the most considerable figure in that feverish world of the munitions makers that has had so much advertisement since the Great War. Only a few names take first rank among this dubious company — old Alfred Krupp, the cannon king of Essen, the Schneiders of Creusot, Thomas Vickers, the English gun maker of Sheffield, Skoda, du Pont de Nemours, the American powder king, Colt and Winchester and Remington and Maxim. They were all, as Messrs. Englebrecht and Hanighen have called them, “Merchants of Death.” But the mightiest “merchant” among them, the man who played the largest role in the “merchandising” of munitions, the greatest market maker, was Basil Zaharoff.

            It was his melancholy good fortune to come upon the scene when the world went in for arms on an unprecedented scale and it was he who, more than any other man, developed the international market for arms. He did not invent it, to be sure. Old Alfred Krupp had played off Turkish orders against his native Prussia when Zaharoff was a mere fireman in Tatavla. And long before either of them — centuries before — old Andries Bicker, Burgomaster of Amsterdam, had built and supplied and provisioned and even financed a complete navy for Spain when the Spanish king was waging war upon Holland. He then explained to the outraged Dutch that if Holland had not armed the Spanish enemy, the Danes would have done it and reaped the profit.

            But Zaharoff played a leading, if not the leading, role in that strange world comedy of the arms makers leading the double life of chauvinists and internationalists. They gave us the spectacle of Boers mowing down English regiments with Vickers’ pom-poms, Prussian surgeons picking out of Prussian wounded Austrian shrapnel fired by Krupp’s cannon, French poilus massacred by shot poured out of guns made in Le Creusot, English Tommies killed by weapons produced by Armstrong and Vickers, and American ships sent to the bottom by U-boats built on models supplied by American submarine builders. Zaharoff was the master of what one biographer has called the “principle of incitement,”under which war scares were managed, enemies created for nations,airplanes sold to one nation and antiaircraft guns to her neighbors, submarines to one and destroyers to another. He did what the cigarette people did, what the liquor industry, the beauty industry did — created a demand for his merchandise. The armament industry became a game of international politics, the arms salesman a diplomatic provocateur, the munitions magnates of all nations partners in cartels, combines, consolidations; exchanging plans, secrets, patents. He was the greatest of all the salesmen of death, and, as one commentator has observed, if you would see his monument, look about you at the military graveyards of Europe.

            II.

            Zacharias Basileios Zacharias — later to be known as Basil Zaharoff — was born October 6, 1849, apparently in Mugla, near the Turkish capital of Angora. His people were Greeks who had lived in Constantinople, fled to Odessa during the Turkish persecutions in 1821, returned to Mugla, and then, when Basileios was three years old, took up their home again in the Tatavla or poor district of Constantinople. The boy went to school until he was sixteen, when some disaster to his father forced him to go to work. He worked, we are told, as a fireman, a guide, a moneychanger. There is more than a hint that these early years were passed amid rough surroundings and that this impulsive and somewhat lawless boy — like one of our prominent labor racketeers, to use his own explanation of his twisted ethics — suffered from lack of “bringing-up.”

            When he was twenty-one he found work with an uncle in Constantinople who had some sort of mercantile business. One day Basileios disappeared, taking with him money from the cash drawer. The infuriated uncle traced him to London where he was arrested. How or why he was arrested in London for a crime committed in Turkey is not made clear. It was perhaps a stage in the process of extradition. In any event Zaharoff pleaded that he was a partner, not an employee, of his uncle, producing a paper attesting that fact — a paper he had miraculously discovered in his trouser pocket on his way to the courthouse — and was let off. This episode is by no means clear. But what there is of it reveals the more or less dark cloud in which he began his career.

            As in all things relating to Zaharoff, there are other versions of this flight. Robert Neumann, who spent some time investigating the story, but unfortunately envelopes all that he writes in a cloud of luminous smoky words, insists that it was not money, but goods that Zaharoff stole and not from an uncle but from a Mr. Hiphentides; and, having converted the merchandise into money, fled to London where he was arrested on the complaint of Mr. Hiphentides, after which he was not acquitted but let off with a reprimand on his promise to make amends.

            Zaharoff, after this narrow escape, went to Greece, Turkey being “no thoroughfare” to him. In Athens he made his Basileios Zacharias into Basil Zaharoff. He remained in Athens from 1873 to 1877, living by odd jobs of all sorts. Somehow stories of Zaharoff’s unsavory past leaked out in Athens. The atmosphere chilled for him among the youthful compatriots with whom he fraternized. Apparently Athens became too unpleasant, and the harassed youth moved on. A singular piece of good fortune overtook him at this point. Shortly after his disappearance a brief newspaper story told how a prisoner, Basileios Zaharoff, in an attempt to escape from the old prison of Garbola in Athens, had been shot and killed by a sentry. Zaharoff had made one friend in Athens — Stephen Skouloudis, later the compliant premier of King Constantine in his attempt to put Greece on the side of Germany, and then well on his way to riches. He had taken a fancy to Zaharoff and he was shocked at this story of his death.

            Skouloudis went to Garbola, got a description of the prisoner who had been killed, had the body exhumed, and satisfied himself that it was not his maligned young friend. He traced the incident farther and learned that the shameful calumny had been printed by a reporter who hated Zaharoff. Having fled to England once more — this time to Manchester — Zaharoff returned to Athens as soon as he heard of Skouloudis’ vindication of him to take advantage of the sympathy created for him by this shocking injustice. This seemingly happened in 1877. He needed work and Skouloudis added another claim upon his gratitude by recommending him to the representative of a Swedish gun maker, who was leaving Greece and looking for a successor. Zaharoff got that job, rushed in a frenzy of gratitude to Skouloudis’ home, fell upon his knees, covered his hands with kisses and tears, and swore eternal friendship. Thus the first phase of the career of this young Monte Cristo ended. Strangely, one does not hear of further contact with Skoulbudis until 1915, when Skouloudis was made Prime Minister of King Constantine and Zaharoff was the brains and moneybag behind the conspiracy of France and Britain to dethrone Constantine and bring the Greeks in on the side of the Allies.

          • AlexanderAmproz

            III.

            Zaharoff — twenty-eight years old — was now in the munitions industry in which he spent the remainder of his eventful life. Torsten Vilhelm Nordenfeldt, a small Swedish manufacturer, commissioned Zaharoff as his agent for the whole Balkan territory at a salary of five pounds a week, later augmented by commissions. It was a small beginning, but in a most opportune time. The whole face of the munitions industry was changing — due to the pressure of inventors, politicians, and merchants.

            There was, of course, nothing new about the arms industry. It was not invented before the World War or by the German junkers. It is a business, like any other. Man, in his discussions with other men about questions of religion, statecraft, geography, trade, has always reached a point in the discussion where it has seemed wise to reply to his opponent by disemboweling him or knocking his brains out. The demand for instruments of discussion of this type, from the day of the leathern armor and the flint spear, has always, quite naturally, inspired thrifty entrepreneurs to provide them for profit. It is a business like law or prostitution or hanging or banking or making shoes. Before the conqueror can lift his sword the armorer must make one for him in his forge. Before armies can march there must be men — thousands, hundreds of thousands of them — who will make guns and cannon and tanks and trucks and uniforms and shoes and food. It is a business and must be run as such. It must have a producing department and a finance department and a sales department. And as it is the function of the production department to develop and produce better and deadlier means of slaughter, it is the function of the sales department to find buyers, nay more, to stimulate consumer demand.

            And so behind every great warrior and war has loomed the figure of the sutler, perhaps just a poor peddler following the troops with rum, or some magnificent gentleman in his countinghouse doing business not with the private in the field, but with the chief of staff in his bureau. Behind Pericles was the shield maker Cleon. Behind Caesar was the banker Crassus and the war contractors of Rome. Behind Maximilian was Jacob Fugger and his rich copper mines in the Tirol. Behind Jeanne d’Arc was Jacques Coeur, who, like a true patriot, supplied the Maid with arms and funds, and, like a true munitioneer, sold arms, against the law of God Himself, to the infidel and was stripped of his wealth and clothed in sackcloth and made to murmur on his knees that he “had wickedly sent armor and arms to the Sultan, enemy of the Christian faith and of the King.” Cromwell had to have his army provisioned the pious Thomas Papillon. Behind Louis XIV was Sam Bernard the banker and the Brothers Paris de Montmartel; behind Napoleon stood Ouvrard.

            It is a strange business, indeed a little weird. Like any other business it calls for a special kind of man with a special kind of talent and a special kind of ethics. It is, indeed, in the words of an American agent of a large submarine manufacturer, “a hell of a business, where you have always to be hoping for trouble in order to prosper.”

            I do not pretend to fathom the depths of its ethics. Let someone unriddle for me this human enigma: M. de Wendel, Frenchman, built a great blast furnace in Briey. Briey lies on the German frontier; on the other side, in Germany, is Thionville with its huge German blast furnaces. There they are on either side of the frontier — Briey in France, Thionville in Germany. Briey belongs to M. de Wendel; Thionville to the Germans. The Great War begins. The French do not attack Thionville; they do not defend Briey. They withdraw their lines and permit Briey to fall into the hands of the Germans. Then throughout the war Briey and Thionville are operated as one huge war production unit by the Germans. They turn out iron and steel that is hurled in huge Big Berthas and little German machine guns at French poilus who are mowed down by the hundreds of thousands. First one officer and then another asks why France does not attack and silence Briey and Thionville. General Malleterre demanded an attack. M. Pierre Etienne Flandin, one day to be premier, an officer then, urged it at the front. Bombardment was begun by General Guillaumat, but stopped instantly by headquarters. Deputies clamored for its destruction. A committee of the Senate urged it. Even the Cabinet asked why Briey and Thionville were not stopped. But nothing was done. They went ahead pumping out materials for Krupp’s throughout the whole war. When the war was over Briey was handed back to M. de Wendel unscathed. Who is M. de Wendel? What manner of man is he? What goes on underneath his vest? What goes on inside the heads of the men, the officers, the politicians who protect “property” that is flooding its iron and steel to Krupp’s to slaughter French boys in a war for the very life of France? Are they monsters? Are they demons? Unfortunately they are not. And that is what makes it all so mysterious and so difficult to deal with.

            It was into this strange business that Basil Zaharoff stepped, carrying with him an almost ideal spiritual equipment for the job. It was not then a huge industry. Best known perhaps was Alfred Krupp, the cannon maker of Essen. At ten he inherited a modest iron foundry from old Frederick Krupp who had started it in 1823. At fourteen Alfred went into the business and slowly took over its direction. Cannon were made of copper. Alfred perfected a solid crucible steel block from which he made cannon. But he had not yet perfected any projectile capable of penetrating the intransigent mentality of military bureaucrats. Cannon were made of copper, had always been, must always be! Herr Krupp learned from the start that the way to sell cannon to the Prussian king was to sell them also to Prussia’s neighbors and enemies. He made his first sales to Egypt, then to Austria. When the Austro-Prussian War began, both armies fired Krupp’s cannon balls at each other, and his guns would have been working in both armies in the Franco-Prussian War but for Napoleon Ill’s refusal to buy them. Krupp’s cannon made Bismarck’s swift victory possible. After that Krupp made and sold his cannon everywhere in 1877 when Zaharoff entered the arms field.

            In England Thomas Vickers developed the little engineering plant of his late father into first a prosperous iron foundry making car wheels, cast-steel blocks and cylinders. He then turned to making gun barrels and armor plate and finally a growing line of weapons.

            In France, Joseph Eugene Schneider, a small banker, bought Le Creusot, an iron foundry and arms plant that had made weapons for France since Louis XIV. Schneider was on the verge of bankruptcy when Napoleon Ill’s adventures saved him, rehabilitated him, and made him rich. Schneider was trying desperately to break into the international arms business but was meeting determined and successful resistance from Krupp.

            Over in America, the du Ponts, Colts, Winchesters, and Remington were prospering as a result of the impetus from the Civil War. Eleuthere Irenee du Pont, son of the famous French radical, Pierre du Pont, emigrated to America, found the powder for hunting quite poor, established a powder mill patronized by Napoleon, and supplied most of the powder used in the War of 1812. He was the friend of Jefferson, suffered the inevitable after-the-war slump, and got aid in France from Madame de Stael and Talleyrand. He then found rich markets in Spain and in South America when dictators and revolutionists fought it out, refused to sell to Cuba during our Mexican War because he feared his powder would go to Santa Anna (though he hated that war), grew rich when railroads and frontiersmen needed dynamite to blast the Western prairies and mountains and forests, sold all he could make to England, France, and Turkey during the Crimean War, and was the mainspring of the Union in the war between the states. In 1877 the du Ponts were already the dominating figures in the powder combinations being formed in America, and by 1897 they were powerful enough to enter into an international arrangement by which the powder makers of America and Europe divided the world among themselves.

            Colt made revolvers, sold them to the soldiers and frontiersmen who conquered the Texas plains, failed, but grew rich through the Crimean and Civil Wars.

            Remington made a fortune with his guns in the Civil War but was ruined by the peace. But Remington recovered from the Civil War by diversifying his products, going into typewriters and sewing machines, and in 1877 he again had his agents in Europe contending for the business of the armies there.

            Winchester, whose guns had created a sensation at the London Fair in 1851, made a sensational repeating rifle during the Civil War, had thirty-eight establishments making small guns, when Zaharoff became a munitioneer, and had in the field one of the first of the world’s arms salesmen extraordinary, Colonel Tom Addis, who equipped Juarez in Mexico and whose guns sealed the fate of Maximilian.

            There were other smaller firms. But taken as a whole the munitions industry was not a vast affair. The men who made fortunes out of arms in earlier times — the Brothers Paris, Chatelain, Ouvrard, Rothschild, Bicker, Jacques Coeur — were not producers of arms or powder and ball. These things had always until the first half of the nineteenth century been made in small shops, by individual craftsmen, in little foundries, the largest of which hired only a few hundred men at most. The fortunes were made by contractors, middlemen, and brokers who assumed the function of collecting weapons, food, grain, clothing for the armies. But with the growth of Krupp and Schneider and Vickers and du Pont and the others, the business of producing weapons and explosives had taken on larger shape.

            All the drifts in the world were moving in the direction of the magic business into which young Mr. Zaharoff had stumbled. The customer of the munitions maker is the soldier. And Europe was learning how to produce many customers for him. France had begun it — republican France — with her mass conscription during the Revolution. But the practice had died out when, after 1815, liberalism once more swept over Europe, until, with Napoleon III, the whole dark movement of militarism took on life once more. Bismarck made almost every German a soldier. And after the Franco-Prussian War, every monarch in Europe was eager to copy the junker model. Then the nation did not wait for a war to raise an army, a small mercenary army. In every country armies were formed during peacetime, far outnumbering any that had ever fought in war. In short, every able-bodied man in Europe was a customer for the gun makers, and peace became as flourishing a period for them as ever war had been. Europe became an armed camp, and the Krupps and Schneiders and Vickers did not have to wait for war to do big business. France, sullen, mourning her “lost provinces”; Italy, nourishing the dream of “Italia Irridenta”; Germany, preparing against France’s effort for revenge, Russia, with her pan-Slavic dreams, the Balkans, waiting for the day to free her enslaved peoples from Austria, Turkey, Germany — all made a perfect climate for the trade of the sellers of rifles and cannon and powder.

            Moreover, the manufacturers of death did not sit still. New and more terrible weapons were being fabricated. Smokeless powder, small-bore magazine rifles for accuracy and distance, rifling of gun bores, the French mitrailleuse blossoming into the machine gun, Krupp’s breach-loading monoblock guns, recoil appliances, the armored warship that began with the Merrimac and Monitor and the submarine — all these gave to the arms drummers a line of goods that introduced into armament the stimulating element of style and quality obsolescence and kept the ordnance departments busy junking old weapons and buying new ones.

            This last element was one that told heavily on the side of the new arms salesman in Athens — Nordenfeldt’s new Balkan drummer. For Nordenfeldt, though small, had an attractive collection of lethal gadgets. He had the eccentric screw breach, the mechanical time fuse, an excellent quick-firing gun, and, wonder of wonders, a submarine that he had invented.

            Zaharoff had to look for business in the Balkans. The Turko- Russian War had just ended. Greece saw herself left out of the division of loot and she determined to arm. She planned an army of 100,000 instead of 20,000 — 100,000 customers for the young arms drummer instead of 20,000. Of course, Zaharoff had to meet the competition of Krupp and others. But he was a Greek and, by this time, we may be sure, burning with patriotism and sales pressure.

            But he did not sell a submarine until 1885 when he planted one in the Greek navy. Having done this, the Greek patriot went to Greece’s enemy, Turkey, and sold two. By this time Hiram Maxim, the American, was running away with the business in quick-firing guns, for his Maxim machine gun outdistanced all rivals. He was going about Europe demonstrating it himself and getting orders. This was a serious matter for Nordenfeldt and his man Zaharoff. Just how it came about and who managed it, no one knows, but in 1886 Maxim and Nordenfeldt joined forces. But Zaharoff now held a substantial interest in the Nordenfeldt firm.

            With this development, Zaharoff began to range over a territory wider than the Balkans. He had established relations with many of the most influential persons in European war departments, ministries, and noble social circles. He was the dominating sales force of the Nordenfeldt-Maxim combination. Gradually Nordenfeldt vanished out of the business, Zaharoff took his place as Maxim’s partner, and the firm took the name of the Maxim Guns and Ammunition Company, Ltd. It is a singular fact that Hiram Maxim in his autobiography makes no reference to Zaharoff.

            The next step was another combination with Vickers, Thomas Vickers — the second largest English manufacturer of arms. Maxim became a member of the Vickers board of directors. Zaharoff’s name did not figure in the organization at all. But he and Maxim, in some proportion unknown to history, got for their company from Vickers £1,353,334, or over six and a half million dollars, partly in cash and partly in stock in the Vickers company. Zaharoff thus became a substantial stockholder in Vickers and would one day be the largest of all. He also became the chief salesman of Vickers which, unlike Krupp and Schneider, had remained up to this point out of the international market. But Zaharoff showed the way into this bountiful field, and thereafter he moved about Europe with a card announcing him as the delegate of Thomas Vickers & Sons.

            But Vickers was in no sense a great business. Its principal function had been supplying guns for the British navy. It was prosperous and imposing after the modest standards of that day. Its great growth dates from the absorption of the Nordenfeldt company, with Nordenfeldt’s submarine, Maxim’s machine gun, and the shrewd, dynamic salesmanship of Zaharoff.

            IV.

            Nothing was wanting but romance now to complete the equipment of Basil Zaharoff for the principal role in a Dumas novel. And this he supplied upon a pattern perfectly in keeping with his character. In 1889, while he was ranging Europe — particularly Russia — for orders, he met Maria del Pilar Antonia Angela Patiocinio Simona de Muguiro y Berute, the Duchess of Villafranca. She was the wife of a young man closely connected with the royal family of Spain. She proved useful to Zaharoff in arranging connections in Spain that enabled him to sell many millions of dollars of arms to the war department. But Zaharoff fell in love with her and urged her to divorce her husband, who was ill and on the verge of dementia. The Duchess, a good Catholic, would not consider divorce, but she became Zaharoff’s mistress, confident that her husband was destined for a speedy death. His mind failed completely, he was put into an insane asylum, and proceeded to disappoint the Duchess and her lover by continuing to live for another thirty-five years. She continued as ZaharofFs mistress; he remained attached to her with singular devotion and in 1924, when her husband died, the two lovers — then aged and near the end of their lives, he seventy-five and she over sixty — were married in a little town outside Paris. They had had two daughters. The Duchess, however, survived this marriage by only eighteen months and her death left the aged bridegroom inconsolable.

            About the time he met the Duchess, Zaharoff established a home in Paris. He was rich and a man of striking, distinguished appearance; a small mustache and imperial and drooping eyelids added an expression of inscrutability to his grave countenance. He cultivated the habit of silence. He avoided displays, public appearances. He took up his place in that foggy, ill-lighted world so fascinating to the readers of newspapers — the world of Behind the Scenes. He had acquaintances, if not friends, among the most important people in Europe. He was now a part owner, sales delegate, guiding spirit of a growing British armament firm, but with his home in France. He spoke Turkish, Greek, French, Italian, German, and probably various Balkan dialects. And the world was unfolding auspiciously if not beautifully before him in the grim business in which he flourished.

            As for Vickers, it now began to expand upon an impressive scale. By 1890 England set out upon a more ambitious naval program than ever. Vickers, which had been a builder of guns, now went into naval construction, as did Krupp in Germany. It acquired a controlling interest in Beardmore’s great shipbuilding firm in Glasgow. It took over the Naval Armaments Company with its dockyards, the Woolsey Tool & Motor Company and the Electric & Ordnance Accessories Company. It became a great department store of lethal weapons and could supply its customers with anything from a rifle to a battleship. Sir Vincent Caillard became its financial genius as Zaharoff was its sales genius. They made an excellent team. Caillard knew how to mix the hard, cruel funcBASIL ZAHAROFF 351 tions of gun-making finance with the more delicate and spiritual values of versemaking, like another and earlier munitioneer, Bonnier de la Mosson, who accumulated a fortune as an army contractor in the time of Louis XV and exercised his leisure by writing verses so bad that Voltaire said they ought to be crowned by the Academy. Sir Vincent made music too and he found time amidst the dark sophistications of munitions finance to set to music Blake’s Songs of Innocence.

            Events favored them — the Spanish-American War, the Chinese- Japanese War, the English-Boer War, in which the Tommies, armed with Vickers rifles, were scientifically mowed down with Maxim’s pom-pom, or quick-firing cannon, supplied to the Boers by M. Zaharoff of Vickers. But the greatest opportunity was the Russo-Japanese War. When it ended all Europe’s war ministries awoke. The war had been a great proving ground for guns and ships — a laboratory for militarists. Above all, Russia had to start at the bottom and completely rebuild her shattered armies. The Czar provided over $620,000,000 for rearming. All the armament makers in the world flocked to St. Petersburg. Zaharoff, representing Vickers, arrived first on the scene. He spoke Russian fluently. He was a member of the Orthodox Greek Church. He had spent much time in Russia. He knew his way around.

            The Schneider-Creusot firm felt it had a special claim on Russian business. Was not Russia France’s ally? Were not French bankers financing Russia? There developed swiftly a struggle between Schneider and Vickers out of which Zaharoff emerged with the largest share of the booty. Indeed, this particular episode established him definitely as the great master arms merchant of the world.

            This fight centered upon two projects — the Putilov munitions works and a plan to erect a new and comprehensive artillery plant somewhere in Russia.

            The contest became somewhat complicated, as all armament contests in Europe are. Behind Schneider was the Banque de l’Union Parisienne, in which he held a large interest. Oddly enough, allied with Vickers was another French bank — the Societe Generale.

            The Putilov works had been heavily financed by Schneider with TUnion Parisienne funds. But Putilov needed more funds. And to make matters worse, Putilov was out of favor. Schneider, despairing of continuing successfully to find an outlet for French arms through Putilov, conceived the idea of building for Russia an entirely new plant in the Urals. But Zaharoff was at work on the same idea, got the inside track, and came off with an arrangement to build for Russia the huge arsenal of Zarizyn at a cost of $12,500,000 — the largest in Russia. Besides that, Zaharoff and certain English interests with whom he was working got large contracts through the St. Petersburg Iron Works and the Franco- Russian Company. With the Russian Shipbuilding Company he got contracts to build two battleships, while Beardmore, Vickers’ subsidiary, got a dockyard and a cannon factory. This was a severe blow to Schneider. And all the time that Zaharoff was working for this he had a paper in Paris, Excelsior, which was pumping out propaganda continuously for more French loans to Russia — French loans that Russia could spend with Vickers.

            Schneider now turned his attention again to salvaging the Putilov works and strengthening his hold upon it. He could get no more financing from l’Union Parisienne, because it already had too much tied up in Putilov and frozen in Balkan investments. He appealed in desperation to the Societe Generale, which was secretly allied with Zaharoff and the English, though a French bank. He was, of course, refused. Indeed the Societe Generale took advantage of Schneider’s embarrassment, doubtless assisted by Zaharoff, to force Schneider out of Putilov altogether. It became a fight between two French banks and a French munitions magnate for Russian business. But at this point Mr. Schneider executed one of those tactical movements we encounter in an Oppenheim international mystery novel.

            One day Paris read in the Echo de Paris a brief dispatch, datelined in St. Petersburg. “There is a rumor,” it reported, “that the Putilov factories at St. Petersburg will be bought by Krupp. If this information is well founded, it will cause great concern in France. It is known indeed that Russia has adopted French types of guns and munitions for her naval artillery and coast defenses. The greater part of the material produced at this time by Putilov was made in collaboration with the Creusot factories and the technical staff which the latter sent to the spot.”

            Here was a provocative item packed away in this little paragraph. Putilov made French guns from French plans. Krupp would get Putilov. Into the German hands would fall all the French ordnance secrets. This was the alarming message in that dispatch. Most disturbing of all, France’s great secret gun — her carefully guarded 7 5-millimeter — would now come into the possession of Krupp’s engineers. The little item swelled rapidly to a press sensation. Krupp denied the story. Vickers, also linked with the sale in some papers, denied it. France must not suffer this disaster. Russia wanted a loan of $25,000,000 for railway rehabilitation. The ministry appealed to patriotic Frenchmen to band together to make the Russian loan and as a condition perpetuate Schneider’s hold on Putilov. The pressure was too great to withstand. The loan was made. Schneider got his financing for Putilov. Even the Societe Generate had to help Schneider.

            It was some years before France learned that the whole dispatch incident was a hoax. Mr. Albert Thomas, director of the International Labor Office in Geneva, in 1921 made a speech there describing how French industrialists boasted to him that they had forged the St. Petersburg dispatch in the office of Echo one night at ten o’clock, and how they had done it not because Putilov was threatened by Krupp but by another French group. They did not hesitate, in this contest for control of a Russian plant, to stir up public opinion against Germany, to set the old chauvinist pot to boiling.

            Zaharoff had failed in his maneuvers to drive the French out of Russia altogether, but he captured for Vickers and other English arms makers the largest share of Russia’s munitions millions.

          • AlexanderAmproz

            Thus the arms makers drove Europe along up to 1914. The airplane had arrived, and Vickers added airplane production to its growing interests. In Paris M. Zaharoff endowed a chair of aviation at the Sorbonne. Indeed, M. Zaharoff, for all his pains to elude the spotlight, found that revealing beam playing upon him at intervals and to his discomfiture. Who is this M. Zaharoff? What is he? To what country does he owe allegiance? He was born in Turkey. He is a Greek. He is a French citizen. He is an English businessman. But what country does he serve? And what sort of game is he playing in France? These were not pleasant questions for one who, indeed, had what Mr. Roosevelt calls a passion for anonymity. Hence the endowed chair at the Sorbonne. And then a home for French soldiers. His name appeared upon subscription lists for all good French causes. And then the French ministry conferred upon him the rosette of an officer of the Legion of Honor — a reward for the chair at the Sorbonne.

            Vickers grew, spread out — plants in Britain, Canada, Italy, Africa, Greece, Turkey, Russia, New Zealand, Ireland, Holland; banks, steelworks, cannon factories, dockyards, plane factories, subsidiaries of all sorts; an arms empire. It had share capital larger than Krupp’s and had more extensive connections and possessions than Krupp’s. And this growth was chiefly the work of the French citizen of Greek blood who, acting the role of ambassador- salesman, had planted the Vickers standard all over the world, from Ireland to Japan and from the North Sea to the Antipodes.

            It was done with the aid of British-government backing and pressure, the immense financial resources of British finance; by means of bribery and chicanery, by the purchase of military and naval authorities and the press wherever newspapers could be bought. It is a dark, sordid story of ruthless money getting without regard for honor, morals, and either national or humane considerations, while the Europe which they upset with their conspiracies and terrorized with their war scares, and to which they sold hatred as the indispensable condition of marketing guns, slid along with the certainty of doom into the chasm of fire and death in 1914.

            On March 18, 1914, on the very brink of the coming disaster, Philip Snowden, disease-wracked, crippled socialist labor leader rose in Commons to make a speech. When he had done, he had rocked the British Empire with his disclosures. For two years a young Quaker socialist named Walton Newbold had been tracing with infinite pains the tortuous trail of the international arms makers. And Philip Snowden had in his possession the fruits of that long quest when he rose to speak. One by one he pointed out cabinet ministers, members of the House, and named high-ranking officials in army and navy circles, persons of royal position, who were large holders of shares in Vickers and Armstrong, in John Brown and Beardmore, shipbuilders.

            The profits of Vickers and Armstrong had been enormous, and the most powerful persons in the state and the church and the nobility had bought into them to share in the profits. Vickers had among its directors two dukes, two marquesses, and family members of fifty earls, fifteen baronets, and five knights, twenty-one naval officers, two naval government architects, and many journalists. Armstrong had even more — sixty earls or their wives, fifteen baronets, twenty knights, and twenty military or naval architects and officers, while there were thirteen members of the House of Commons on the directorates of Vickers, Armstrong, or John Brown. “It would be impossible,” said Snowden, “to throw a handful of pebbles anywhere upon the opposition benches without hitting members interested in these arms firms.”

            Ministers, officers, technical experts moved out of the government, out of the cabinet, the navy, the army, the war office, the admiralty, into the employ of the munitions manufacturers.

            Snowden quoted Lord Welby, head of the Civil Service, who only a few weeks before had denounced the arms conspirators. “We are in the hands of an organization of crooks,” said Lord Welby. “They are politicians, generals, manufacturers of armaments and journalists. All of them are anxious for unlimited expenditure, and go on inventing scares to terrify the public and to terrify the Ministers of the Crown.”

            Every business attracts to itself men who have the taste, talent, and the morals suited to its special requirements. This armament world of Europe was a behind-the-scenes world of intrigue, chicanery, hypocrisy, and corruption. It involved a weird marriage between burning patriotism and cold, ruthless realism. And the men who rose to leadership in it were men who combined the vices of the spy, the bribe giver, the corruptionist. They played with an explosive far more volatile and dangerous than anything made in their laboratories — chauvinism — and they did it with ruthless realism. There was, indeed, something singularly brutal about their realism.

            The trail of that vast armament effort between 1877 and 1914 is stained by a record of bribery of admirals and generals, civil servants of all degrees ranging from cabinet ministers to messengers. One German armament maker said that “Krupp employs hundreds of officers on leave or withdrawal at high salaries for doing nothing much at all. For some families Krupp factories are a great sinecure where nephews and poor relations of officials whose influence in war is great find themselves jobs.”

            In 1913, a year before Snowden’s exposures in the House of Commons, Dr. Karl Liebknecht, socialist leader in the Reichstag, made a series of grave charges against German armament leaders that resulted in the trial and conviction of the secretary-superintendent of the Ministry of War, four arsenal officials, and four lieutenants and others, including Brandt, the Berlin agent of Krupp. A year later, about the time that Snowden was shocking his colleagues in Parliament, Liebknecht again brought a series of charges against the corruption of Japanese officials by Siemens-Schuckert, another German arms concern. This led to the scandal unearthed by the Japanese Diet and showing that M. Zaharoff’s firm of Vickers, along with the Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, had paid out $565,000 in bribes to Japanese officials to clinch the contract for the building of the battleship Kongo. Of course no espionage could follow the numerous and devious trails of the arms makers. It is strange that even so much of their corruption came to light. But what was exposed can be taken as no more than samples of the manner in which their business was conducted.

            The whole excuse of this industry was national defense. Yet these enterprises were as busy supplying the armies of their enemies as the armies of their own countries. Up to the time of Alfred Krupp’s death in 1887 he had made 24,576 cannon of which only 10,666, or less than half, were sold to the fatherland for national defense. The rest went to Germany’s enemies and neighbors. Some of them — Austria and China — were supposed to be her allies. But Austria’s Krupp cannons sent death through German ranks in the Austro- Prussian War, and when, in the Boxer rebellion, a German warship attacked a Chinese fort, the cannons Krupp sold to Li Hung Chang dealt death and destruction to German sailors. When Italy and Turkey fought in 1911 Turkey used a fleet largely supplied by Italy. And when Italy and Germany fought in the World War, Italy had a fleet of seventeen vessels built in German shipyards. Zaharoff had got from Turkey contracts for two dreadnaughts and a fleet of destroyers to patrol the Dardanelles, which were conveniently on hand when the British soldiers were landed in 1915 to attempt to carry that stronghold. Earlier still, British Tommies in South Africa were mowed down by Maxim’s quick-firing cannon — the pom-poms — which Zaharoff for Vickers had sold to the Boers. The story is an endless one. It includes even the sinking of the Lusitania, which played so large a part in bringing America into the war. For this was the feat of a German submarine built upon plans supplied before the war to Austria by the Electric Boat Company, American submarine builders.

            VI.

            The fame of Krupp — the part he, Alfred, and his son Fritz played in the development of the junker regime in Germany — gives to the name Krupp a kind of premiership among the Merchants of Death. And while Krupp never attained the size and expansion of the Vickers firm that Zaharoff built, and particularly of the Vickers- Armstrong firm, when these two were combined after the war, yet a special notice ought to be taken here of this vast German arms machine. Old Alfred Krupp, high-handed, overbearing, ruthless pursuer of wealth, died in 1887. The little steel plant at Essen had only about thirty employees when he began work in it. When Zaharoff entered the arms industry in Greece it had grown to a great enterprise employing over 16,000 men. Old Alfred went to his death a wretched, isolated misanthrope. He left as his heir his son Fritz, thirty-three, delicate, shy, sensitive, unpromising, who had filled various posts in the business since he was twenty in preparation for his destiny.

            Fritz Krupp immediately embarked upon a policy of expansion, making armor plate, buying up shipyards at Kiel to be ready for the era of naval expansion that the youthful von Tirpitz was even then brewing.

            Bismarck was let out, the last brake upon unrestrained militarism was removed, young Kaiser Wilhelm became a close friend and frequent visitor and hunting companion of Fritz Krupp. Von Tirpitz was made Secretary of the Admiralty, the first naval act was passed to spend 150 million marks on ships, and Krupp got the lion’s share. The German Navy League was called into being. With the aid of large subsidies from Krupp and Stumm and other arms patriots, it unloosed upon the German people a flood of highpowered patriotic propaganda, backed by the Kaiser. The junker age was now in full career. Wilhelm ordered that half of all armament contracts be awarded to Krupp and the rest divided among the other German munitioneers. Germany kept her arms contracts at home. Krupp’s mills, shipyards, and docks became indispensable to Germany, not only for war purposes but for peace. It was a vast industry that employed many men and provided still more employment among all the raw-material industries upon which it drew. When the Hague conference was discussed in Germany, looking toward disarmament, the militarist ministers asked what would become of Krupp’s business if Germany disarmed. They put that in writing, and the Kaiser wrote upon the memorandum the question, “How will Krupp pay his men?” Armament had become a cornerstone of the German internal economic policy.

            Fritz Krupp grew ever richer, worth 119 million marks in 1895, 187 million marks when he died in 1902. He had an income of seven million marks in 1895 and twenty-one million in 1902. He had put aside the severe manner of life of the crusty old Alfred. He had become an industrial monarch. He dwelt in three great German castles — Hugel on the Ruhr, Sayneck in the Rhine Valley, and Meineck in Baden-Baden — and was a member of the Prussian State Council, of the federal House of Lords, a Privy Councilor, surrounded by flatterers and parasites.

            He was destined to a melancholy end. A man of strange tastes and mystifying behavior, he kept his wife in an insane asylum and acquired a place at Capri, the Hermitage of Fra Felicia, which he called the Holy Grotto. He had attendants clad in the gowns of Franciscan monks. He formed an “order” — an association of men, the members of which had keys to the Holy Grotto. There gargantuan feasts were spread. There the Cannon King II held wassail until the dawn sometimes — orgies, these feasts were called by the islanders. Presently Neapolitan papers printed stories about them. One German paper, the Vorwdrts, retold the tales, more than insinuating that this was a homosexual “abbey.” Fritz Krupp sued the Vorwdrts. Socialist deputies flew to the charge, the episode became a national scandal in which the Kaiser felt called upon to intervene.

            Then on the night of November 21, 1902, when the prosecution of the Vorworts was being prepared, Fritz Krupp died alone in his bedroom. Whether he died of a stroke or killed himself remained a subject of violent controversy in Germany for many years. Certainly, contradictory reports about his manner of death were issued. The Kaiser went to Essen and walked on foot behind the corpse to silence scandal. The prosecution of the Vorwdrts was dropped. And the widow, until Fritz’ death held as an unbalanced person, assumed command of the vast enterprises and administered them for a while with drive and vigor.

            VII.

            When the war broke over Europe the moment of paradise for the arms makers was at hand. At first glance it may appear singular that the activities of Zaharoff during the war remain so obscure. But if ever there was a time when Europe needed no munitions salesmen it was after 1914. The salesman’s work was done. The war — modern war, the greatest, most insatiable customer of the munitioneers — had come into the market. Generals and admirals clamored for more and ever more arms and explosives. The work of the salesmen of death was over, for the moment, anyway. Therefore Zaharoff’s industry did not need his peculiar abilities.

            But the moment came when Britain and France desired Greece as an active ally in the war. This was when England launched her attack upon the Dardanelles. The Greek government was divided. The pan-Hellenic Venizelos, his majority in the chamber, and the National Council favored joining the Allies. Constantine, King, brother-in-law of the Kaiser, pro-German, favored neutrality. He was popular in Greece because of the recent Balkan victories. The King dismissed Venizelos. In June the voters returned Venizelos to power. The chief objective of the Allies at the moment was to keep Bulgaria out of the war, hence the threat of Greek participation on the Allied side. Bulgaria mobilized in September, 1915. Venizelos ordered a countermobilization. The King permitted it until he heard that Venizelos proposed to go to the aid of Serbia. Then he dismissed the Premier again.

          • AlexanderAmproz

            At this juncture Zaharoff’s offices were enlisted. When Venizelos was dismissed, Constantine named Skouloudis, Zaharoff’s old friend and benefactor, as Premier. Perhaps this may have accounted for Zaharoff’s interest. Perhaps he would be able to work the miracle with Skouloudis. But there was another reason. The Greek problem now literally assumed the form of a conspiracy to dethrone the King and drive him out of Athens. This was a business into which France and England could not very well enter officially. They dared not supply funds for the purpose. After all, Greece was neutral and on terms of friendly intercourse with France. Briand, therefore, drew away from having any direct part in managing or financing a plan to upset the monarchy in Greece. But Zaharoff, a private citizen, could do this, particularly if he supplied his own money. Just before Christmas, 1915, therefore, Zaharoff had a conference with Briand and agreed to assume the job of bringing Greece in on the side of the Allies or of ousting Constantine. Briand notified Venizelos of this good fortune. And Zaharoff set about his task.

            Just how much he did personally, what steps he actually originated, and what pressures he organized and directed are not known. The money for the campaign is supposed to have been supplied by him and it is also reported to have run into many millions. Whether it was furnished by him or Vickers or various other interests is also not known. The propaganda in Greece, handled by a French naval attache, had been execrable. He was relieved of his clumsy performances, and an instrument called the Agence Radio was set up to go to work upon the Grecian mind. It resorted to all the familiar devices of international propaganda. It subsidized newspapers, bribed editors, issued pamphlets, financed meetings, and generally managed all the standard techniques of underground activity. For one thing it played heavily upon Allied successes. In Europe every small country wanted to be on the winning side. And Zaharoff’s Agence Radio pumped up such endless whoppers about French and English victories that the Russian minister in Athens protested that it was absurd.

            Zaharoff, if he tried to do anything with his old friend Skouloudis, failed, for the Premier stuck to the King and worked incessantly for neutrality. But Constantine was growing weaker and Venizelos stronger. Finally, when the time was ripe, Venizelos went to Salonika, where the Allies had landed, and organized a revolutionary government which resulted in the abdication of Constantine in June, 1917. Greece joined the Allies and the following year threw 2 50,000 men into the great Macedonian offensive that forced the surrender of Bulgaria.

            This was an important service, for the defeat of Bulgaria, with which Greece’s participation had much to do, was the first great crack in the enemy front. Zaharoff was busy in other directions. He endowed a chair of aviation at the University of St. Petersburg and made $125,000 available in England for the study of aviation problems. He subscribed 200,000 francs for a war hospital at Biarritz. Mr. Lewinsohn, his most industrious biographer, credits him, upon the authority of the Paris Temps, with contributing not less than 50 million francs (about $10,000,000 at prewar value) to the cause of England and France during the war.

            But Zaharoff was not done with Greece. The armistice did not end the dreams of that relentless Cretan patriot, Venizelos, for the realization of his pan-Hellenic dreams. Zaharoff met Venizelos for the first time in 1918. And at Zaharoff’s villa the two Greeks planned great gains for Greece out of the victory about to be won. The story, much oversimplified, runs about as follows. Zaharoff, Greek to the core despite his many other national encrustations, proposed to finance Venizelos in the realization of his dreams of expansion in Asia Minor. In May, 1919, Venizelos won from the allied statesmen their consent to occupy Smyrna. In August, 1920, the Treaty of Sevres gave to Greece Smyrna, its hinterland and a large territory in Asia Minor. With Zaharoff’s funds Venizelos began to occupy these territories. Lloyd George, British premier, supported Venizelos completely in these adventures.

            But quickly a series of misfortunes overtook the great Greek statesman. First, France lost interest in her Greek ally. Then unrest spread rapidly through Greece against Venizelos. The reprehensible behavior of his subordinates in Athens, while he worked with the powers in Paris, produced profound dissatisfaction, which the agents of the absent Constantine skillfully exploited. However, Constantine’s son, Alexander, was King and Venizelos seemed secure with him. Then suddenly, young Alexander, bitten by a monkey, died of the infection, and the whole Greek political situation was thrown into chaos. Venizelos, absent so much at the Paris conferences, had lost control and in an election forced in November, 1920, his ministry was defeated. Within a month Constantine returned to power, Venizelos was an exile, and Zaharoff s plans were in the fire.

            But the end was not yet. Constantine pressed on with Venizelos’ grandiose plans, launched an ambitious Greek offensive in July, 1921, suffered a decisive defeat at Sakaria, and in September was driven from Smyrna by a revamped and refurbished Turkish army under Kemal Pasha, which burned that hapless city to the ground in one of the great disasters of history. Constantine was forced again to retire. By this time Lloyd George was being bitterly assailed in England for accepting the advice of Zaharoff, and, in the end, the ministry of Lloyd George was wrecked upon the rock of the Grecian debacle. Zaharoff, we are assured, lost an immense slice of his fortune in this daring and ambitious design to create a great Hellenic empire in Asia Minor.

            But this scarcely tells the whole story. Lord Beaverbrook had said that “the destinies of nations are Zaharoff’s sport.” It was not all sport. It was the kind of sport — gamble is the better word — in which the wily old schemer played for high stakes. As early as 1918 Zaharoff began to plan for certain undisclosed adventures. While the armies of the world strained on to the last scene of the war, Zaharoff laid plans for the coming peace. He bought a bank in Paris — the Banque Mayer Freres — renamed it the Banque de la Seine, reorganized it, capitalized it at 12 million francs, and very quickly increased this to 30 million. This was about the time he met Venizelos and concocted with him the Grecian program.

            Later, in 1920, the Greeks had occupied Smyrna and the Allies were in possession of Constantinople. At that time, as the Greeks prepared for their offensive in Asia Minor, he founded a new bank in Constantinople — the Banque Commerciale de la Mediterranee. Had not Beaverbrook said, “In the wake of war this mysterious figure moves over tortured Europe.” This bank was capitalized at 30 million francs, its ownership resting in the Banque de la Seine. It set up for business in the quarters of the Deutsche Orientbank. Next he organized the Societe Frangaise des Docks et Ateliers de Constructions Navales and planned to take over the docks of the Societe Ottoman. For whom? All these companies were French in name at least — there was no smell of the hated Briton anywhere. But this would have given Zaharoff control of the most important naval docks in Turkey. Could it be for Vickers? For whom else? But the Turks refused to let M. Zaharoff have these valuable properties. And when this occurred did not the British government demand that Kemal Pasha turn them over to Vickers and Armstrong?

            There was something more than Greek patriotism in Zaharoff’s league with Venizelos. Beaverbrook said: “The movement of armies and the affairs of governments are his special delight.” He had inspired the movements of the Greek armies. He had insinuated himself as the adviser of Lloyd George in Asia Minor. The British Prime Minister had made Zaharoff’s plans part of his policy. Zaharoff had spent, it was said, four million pounds — $20,000,000 — on the Greek campaign. But there is really no evidence of this. So far as I can find, the statement rests upon a single question, by a member of the British Commons, Mr. Aubrey Herbert in 1921, during an interpolation — a question which Mr. Bonar Law parried. How much Zaharoff spent and whether it was his money or that of the English armament firms under his leadership, who were using the disturbed state of eastern Europe to get possession of valuable properties there, remain completely unriddled. Their plans did not turn out well. The collapse of what is called M. Zaharoff’s personal war with Turkey — the Greco-Turkish War of 1920-22 — the disastrous defeat of the Greeks, the awful tragedy of Smyrna, and the execution of most of the Greek cabinet ruined all Zaharoff’s plans and brought him the loss of millions.

            But long before the disaster the name of Zaharoff was being whispered around the clubs in London as the author of Lloyd George’s highly unpopular policy in Greece and Turkey. Mr. Walter Guinness attacked the Prime Minister in the House on this score in August, 1920, when the Turks started their vigorous counterattack. The next year Lloyd George was again assailed in Commons with greater effect by Mr. Aubrey Herbert. And when the great catastrophe at Smyrna shocked Europe, Lloyd George found himself at the end of his rope and resigned.

            These Turkish enterprises were not the only fields into which Zaharoff’s Banque de la Seine ventured. Very quietly, without fuss or trumpets, the Banque de la Seine became the owner of a company called the Societe Navale del’Ouest — a shipping company equipped to transport oil. Then another company appeared — the Societe Generale des Huiles de Petrole. Fifty-five per cent of its stock belonged to the Societe Navale de l’Ouest, the Banque de la Seine, and Zaharoff, and forty-five per cent to the British government-owned Anglo-Persian Oil Company. This Societe Generale was no small affair. Its capital in 1922 came to 227 million francs. It took over or formed other corporations with refineries, so that by 1922 Zaharoff had organized in France a British-owned integrated oil industry.

            These projects were typical of the Zaharoff technique. In both cases he was acting as a Frenchman, a citizen of France, organizing what seemed to be French companies — one group to exploit the armament possibilities of Turkey and Greece for Vickers, the other group to exploit French territory for the Anglo-Persian oil interests of the British government. Always a large part of the working machinery and certainly the meaning of Zaharoff projects were underground. He was the mysterious entrepreneur, the schemer moving in the dark, playing with behind-the-door intrigues, twisting silently along tortuous routes for undisclosed agents. Various writers have woven different surmises out of all these performances. But unfortunately most of the factors in the problem of Zaharoff’s designs remain unknown. The most that can be said with assurance of certainty is that he, accepted as a citizen of France, honored by the ministry, and enjoying the confidence of her most powerful ministers, used France — as indeed he had always done — as a base for managing an English trade offensive, trade in arms and in oil in France and the Near East, in direct conflict at many points with the French government’s own objectives. He is credited with immense losses in the fatal Greco-Turkish War. Doubtless he lost heavily, but doubtless also, his losses were shared by his colleagues in Vickers.

            He is also credited with being able to offset these losses with his new profitable oil investments. What these investments were worth to him must also remain a mystery. In the end his Banque de la Seine fell upon troubled days and he let it go. After a brief effort to adjust it to the new conditions, he saw, doubtless with complacence, others take it over. It is an extraordinary feature of these Grecian and Turkish and Anglo-Persian oil transactions that, though they form part of the history of the period that has been raked over by historians, and though Zaharoff beyond doubt was the field marshal directing them in France, his personal movements throughout remain in complete obscurity. No major figure has succeeded so completely in cloaking his movements as this master-intriguer.

            VIII.

            https://mises.org/library/merchant-death-basil-zaharoff

  • Assad must stay (gr8rambino)

    Best military in the world??? Hahahaha

  • jaimeintexas

    For example, other things that were left were flags of the United States, as well as a flag with the motto of US Central command of the Special Operations: “Come and Take it.”

    That is the Gonzales Flag, considered the first battle in Texas Independence.

  • χρηστος

    a total disgrace, they left is such a hurry i get it but we are talking about military equipment here. beautiful pictures for us though. bye bye, never come back to Syria.

  • Dick Von Dast’Ard

    Something terrible must have happened to those colonial marines to have left in such a hurry…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpW2AjQbdbs

    In Syria no one can hear you scream!

  • FlorianGeyer

    If only the US Special Forces had utilised the Hillary Clinton method of Server Destruction they would not have looked like a bunch or raw recruits :)

    I suppose though, that their education levels are on a par with kids who also read Harry Potter books.

  • Bob

    Despite all the relentless US self propaganda and media hype about their military professionalism – these abandoned bases reveal that when pushed by circumstances, the US military are just as likely to fall into ill-discipline as any other military organization.

  • Dawn

    Harry Potter books in military camp … say no more..