The current situation in the world can be called the culmination of a political instability including recurrent and common problems in many countries in the Sahel region such as Libya, Mali, Nigeria and others. Such kind of a political crisis is clearly demonstrated by domino theory. The fall of the one country produces a “domino effect” that destabilizes all the region. Nowadays the humanitarian situation also remains extremely fragile, food insecurity, malnutrition, disease outbreaks, insecurity and natural disasters continue to affect local population. Security in the region remains precarious. The deterioration of the political and security situation in Libya, the political impasse and persisting security challenges in Mali, the increasing number of terrorist attacks throughout the region, notably those carried out by Boko Haram in Nigeria, and kidnappings for ransom continue to have negative consequences for civilians.
If terrorist forces take control of the country, there will be direct contagion of the surrounding ones. As a result of current political instability of the hall region, the security situation in the northern part of Mali has gradually deteriorated, with a notable increase in the number of improvised explosive devices and indirect fire incidents against Malian forces. Strangers attacked Malian military checkpoint close to the northern outskirts of Timbuktu city in September. As the result, two soldiers were killed, one was injured and one was lost. Bamako condemned this serious interruption of deal about the termination of fire. Probably one of jihadi groups committed these actions in the country. From March or April 2012 to January 2013, the north of Mali was occupied by three jihadi groups – “Ansar ad-din”, “Al-Quaeda” in the countries of the Islamic Maghareb and “Movement for Unity and Jihad” in Western Africa. As the result of French intervention it was managed to mop up the territory,but terrorists continue acting there.
At first the deal about the termination of military actions in the north of Mali was signed by the government, pro-government armed forces and by the representatives of rebels groups under the pressure of the international community. On the 6th of September pro-government armed forces began the derivation of their fighters from Anafis city in the north of Mali. 12. A particularly worrying development is the increase in the activities of Boko Haram within and without Nigeria. There is growing evidence that Boko Haram is better equipped and armed and has the potential to destabilize areas around Lake Chad, reportedly benefiting from the porous borders of Nigeria with Cameroon, Chad and the Niger to smuggle in arms and mount attacks against public institutions and civilian populations. The crises in Libya, Mali and Nigeria are destabilizing the broader Sahel region.Extremist and radical ideologies continue to spread in the Sahel region. The tension in the center and the south of the country was result of the appearance of hundreds new jihadists in the north of the country. Generally to opposing coalitions organized themselves in this region although earlier signed a peaceful deal.
Overall, it is obvious that in conditions when the main current players try to do their best to deal with Syrian crisis, the terrorists in the Sahel have a chance to win new positions. This is fraught with further exacerbation of the situation in the region. A lot of measures have been adopted to relieve the problem in the short term, but often with irreversibly negative long-term consequences. Addressing the complex and evolving security, political and humanitarian challenges in the Sahel demands a comprehensive regional and international approach. The best way to overcome all the problems in Sahel zone is to work closely together to address the challenges facing the region.