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Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia’s Reparations For Losing The Cold War

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Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia's Reparations For Losing The Cold War

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On February 18, 1993, the governments of the Russian Federation and the United States signed the “Agreement Concerning the Disposition of Highly-Enriched Uranium Extracted from Nuclear Weapons”. Under this document, Russia undertook to supply the U.S. with not less than 500 tons of its weapon-grade uranium that would be used as fuel in U.S. nuclear power plants. The agreement was extended over the 20-years period, and the program was successfully completed in 2013. In its turn, the U.S. was obliged to pay about $11 billion. With the blessing of Yeltsin and Clinton, the deal was signed by Albert Gore and Viktor Chernomyrdin.

The agreement was concluded two years after the signing of the START I that contemplated almost 50% reduction in the number of nuclear warheads and carriers. It raised a necessity to recycle the excessive quantity of weapon-grade uranium from the thousands of nuclear warheads. Referring to desperate state of the Russian economy and the need to assure that there would be no risk that Soviet nuclear weapon falls into wrong hands, American scientist Thomas Neff proposed to dilute excessive for national security purposes Russian high-enriched weapon-grade uranium (HEU) into low-enriched uranium (LEU) and send it to the U.S. nuclear power plants. In order to provide additional employment in Russian former defense enterprises and to keep the isotopic composition of the material in secret, it was decided that HEU would be diluted in Russian factories, and the U.S. would get the right to control the process. As well as, the Russian side could ensure that this uranium is not used for the U.S. military purposes.

So-called “Megatons to Megawatts Program” was presented as a mutually beneficial deal. It could be so, if Russia had not assured a half of the U.S. nuclear power plants’ needs for 20 years almost for free. The “mutually beneficial deal” turned out to be Russian reparations for losing the Cold war.

Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia's Reparations For Losing The Cold War

Click to see full-size image

The documents that were declassified in the U.S. in 1996 unveiled that, after spending $ 3.9 trillion on nuclear weapons since 1945, the Americans were able to produce only 550 tons of weapons-grade uranium. It equals the quantity of nuclear fuel that was sent by Victor Chernomyrdin and Boris Yeltsin across the Atlantic Ocean. The uranium was sold not for trillions dollars in line with what the US spent, but for $ 11.5 billion. According to various estimates of nuclear scientists, the cost of Russian uranium was much higher and could amount to $8-12 trillion. That is, Americans paid only 0.15% of the real value.

The bargain was cloaked in utmost secrecy. The agreement was not ratified. Despite the numerous demands to ratify it according to the law, as the agreement affected national security. Even the directorate of the Russian Ministry of Defense, whose missiles were gutted in the most shameless way, had no idea on the final destination of uranium transfer.

Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia's Reparations For Losing The Cold War

Igor Nikolayevich Rodionov (1936-2014), Russian Minister of Defence in 1996-1997 / Source: AP Photo/Pool

Army General Igor Rodionov once admitted: “How was it possible that being the Minister of Defense I knew nothing about the Uranium Bargain between Russia and the United States. There are still the questions: Who exactly, in what composition and how did they implement these agreements?”

According to Rodionov’s claims, in total, there were four agreements, but the texts of documents No. 1 and No. 3 were missing. They have never been found.

“And for some reason, neither the Russian FSB, nor the Security Council, nor the Ministry of Defense can help us, the deputies of the State Duma. I personally addressed three letters to President Putin in May 2004, January and March 2005. Putin didn’t answer me. I wanted to explain to the President of the country that probably we are dealing with high treason of paramount importance.”

Many prominent Russian scientists and politicians were involved in solving the mystery of the secret agreements, some of them paid for their curiosity with their lives. The first to see the criminal nature of the agreement was Lev Maksimov, acting Director of the secret Novosibirsk Institute of physical problems of metallurgy and special engineering, who tried to raise a stink hoping to push Kremlin to invalidate the agreement.

Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia's Reparations For Losing The Cold War

Prominent Soviet nuclear physicist Lev Maksimov

However, his efforts led to the opposite results, all scientific developments that the Institute was engaged in were confiscated by “unidentified persons”, and researchers were expelled. Since then, Maximov has been persecuted and threatened, he survived several assassination attacks.

Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia's Reparations For Losing The Cold War

Lev Rokhlin (1947–1998) Member of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, the chairman of State Duma’s Defense Committee

He addressed to the Chairman of the State Duma’s Defense Committee Lev Rokhlin, who started to investigate the implementation of the agreement. In November 1996, Rokhlin wrote a letter to Yeltsin asking about the deal, but received no response. L. Rokhlin was assassinated in his datcha in 1998.

A day before the murder, Rokhlin gave an interview to Express-Gazeta, saying: “I have enough documents to claim that some officials from the presidential administration work for foreign intelligence. I am very close to releasing these documents…”

Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia's Reparations For Losing The Cold War

Yuri Shchekochikhin (1950-2003) investigative journalist, writer, Deputy Chairman of the State Duma’s Defense Committee

According to some reports, after the murder of L. Rokhlin, Deputy Chairman of the State Duma’s Defense Committee Yuri Shchekochikhin, has been actively searching for the “missing” texts of the agreements No. 1 and No. 3. He was allegedly poisoned in 2003.

Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia's Reparations For Losing The Cold War

Viktor Ilyukhin (1949-2011), Chairman of the State Duma Committee on security, member of the State Duma’s anti-corruption committee, member of the State Duma committee to consider of the federal budget on the defense and security of the Russian Federation, Chairman of the Movement in Support of the Army.

Prosecutor General Yuri Skuratov and State Duma Deputy Viktor Ilyukhin tried to unveil the deal. The death of Ilyukhin and the resignation of Skuratov are attributed to their excessive activity in the investigation of the Grand Uranium Bargain.

Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia's Reparations For Losing The Cold War

Yury Ilyich Skuratov – Prosecutor General of Russia in 1995-1999

Skuratov resigned in 2000. The formal reason for his resignation that was spread by mass media was a video in which Skuratov allegedly had sex with two young women. In fact, the video did not produce the desired effect, many even envied that the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation at his age could please young women. In addition, in the 1990s, rape and pedophilia were wide spread in Russia, so Skuratov’s decent personal life, as he had never been suspected of cheating on his wife, did not make a desired splash. According to trusted sources, the video was rigged. The scandal was initiated by a circle of people whose interests were prevented by Skuratov’s actions against the realization of pro-American agenda on the territory of Russia. The Prosecutor General worked in several such directions, one of which was the investigation of the Grand Uranium Bargain.

Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia's Reparations For Losing The Cold War

Ivan Nikitchuk, Deputy of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, doctor of technical science, nuclear physicist

Thanks to Rokhlin, other deputies joined investigation process, including Ivan Nikitchuk, doctor of technical science, nuclear physicist, who worked for almost 30 years at the secret Arzamas-16 facility. They checked the information received from Maximov and agreed that it was true. There were less and less doubts that a crime has been committed against Russian national interests.

In 1997 after the inspection, closed and then open trials were held in the State Duma. The participants developed appropriate recommendations, and sent requests to President Yeltsin, the Prosecutor General, and the Security Council with a demand to give the Parliament appropriate explanations. In 1998, the anti-Corruption Commission of the State Duma made a number of requests concerning the reliability of the sale of weapons-grade uranium. The government and the Prosecutor General’s office replied that there was no such agreement, as well as the sale of uranuim.

Later, the deal, which was deliberately hidden, became public. Now, the code of the agreement, its approximate content, and conditions are known.

The significance of this deal for the United States is characterized by the following figures: it has been providing half of the country’s nuclear power plant needs for nuclear fuel for almost 20 years and generating up to 10% of the total electricity produced in the United States annually. However, according to the report released by the National nuclear safety administration (NNSA) the US uranium industry has fallen into decline during the years of abundance of Russian uranium and the significant cash injection was necessary to revive it.

Russia completed its part of the Uranium deal under Putin, in 2013. The total income from the implementation of the Grand Uranium Bargain was about $17 billion. The Russian budget received $13 billion.

The Russian economy has suffered extensive damage. In reference to oil, from 1991 to 2013 the cost of a barrel increased from $40 to $120. Assuming an average value of $ 50, Russia’s revenue could be $ 750 billion, without taking into account the indirect costs of “subsidies” to the United States, which used Russian uranium for decades, spending no money on the use of its own resources.

Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia's Reparations For Losing The Cold War

Click to see the full-size high resolution map

The weapons-grade uranium sent to the United States could be used as fuel for Russian domestic nuclear power plants or sold to other countries at a market price. For example, already in 2012, Techsnabexport entered the Middle Eastern market by signing a long-term contract with Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (UAE) for the supply of Russian uranium from weapons reserves for the Baraka nuclear power plant. The delivery of a batch of enriched uranium from Russia to Japan via the Vostochny Port in October 2012 confirmed the feasibility and prospects of using new transport corridors for the supply of uranium products to various world regions.

The Grand Uranium Bargain was conceived as a de facto implementation of the START-2 Treaty, which has never been ratified. In 1997, more than 400 tons of weapons-grade uranium were extracted from Russian nuclear warheads that equals to more than 25 thousand dismantled nuclear warheads. Thus, bypassing the ratification of the START-2 Treaty, the deal makers ensured the fulfillment of the main strategic tasks of the US and NATO leadership – to accelerate Russian unilateral nuclear disarmament.

Secret Uranium Bargain: Russia's Reparations For Losing The Cold War

The bombing of the Supreme Russian Soviet in 1993

The reason that prompted the Russian government to sign the Grand Uranium Bargain in 1993 remains unclear.

Probably, Yeltsin gave way on the sale in order to convince the U.S. to turn a blind eye to the bombing of the Supreme Russian Soviet that claimed lives of 124 persons. This was a bidding — the United States received nuclear fuel for non-interference. It wasn’t a commercial decision, but a political one.

In Russia, the Grand Uranium Bargain was called the “Scam of the century”. The betrayal of the country national interests has not been properly investigated yet.

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62 comments

  1. J Roderet says:

    Russia must bring back the death penalty to hold all of these filthy traitors accountable for their massive crimes. If someone in the USA had done the same thing, they would be executed.

    1. JIMI JAMES says:

      Whilst they don’t are playing into eu-epp/liberal policys,which helps the eu-epp/nwo win via.

  2. chris chuba says:

    “Probably, Yeltsin gave way on the sale in order to convince the U.S. to turn a blind eye to the bombing of the Supreme Russian Soviet that claimed lives of 124 persons.”

    BTW in western MSM the victims, the 124 members of Parliament who were challenging Yeltsin on Constitutional grounds were portrayed as ‘hardliners’ and Yeltsin was the ‘reformer’. The victim was the victimizer.

    Most people in the U.S. have no idea how much Russia was plundered under Yeltsin. The so-called ‘Russian experts’ are criminal propagandists.

    1. FkDahl says:

      I could ask Anders Åslund about this, but he blocked me on Twitter…

  3. cechas vodobenikov says:

    an expensive lesson–but valuable

  4. Icarus Tanović says:

    This sounds like high treason.

    1. JIMI JAMES says:

      These are the ones whom helped the nazis invade cccp in early stages of ww2,before stalin successfullt drained the swamp and exiled to the gulags and israhell,sadly they wormed their way slowly but surely back and it wasn’t untill putin whom became the game changer since:
      These traitors and oligharchs based in ukraine and europe and usa,russian one hit with sanctions,that is put us dollar before russian peoples,explains how russia beat their sanctions,because that mean the swines lose out,no choice but invest in russian or leave:

  5. Proud Hindu says:

    Russia weapons are crap and dont work.Hope india joins nato and kicks out russian backstabbers.Fuck the ruskies and chinese assholes

    1. JIMI JAMES says:

      https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/a4cc94adfe933479a3427c0f3dee0eda0924af19df75e4795761fb9d6a4802ae.jpg

      Karma is a bitch,ain’t it mr $6.79 p/m,with your usa master helipng you peoples(never)

      1. Proud Hindu says:

        Lol dont u have something else to say.

        1. JIMI JAMES says:

          Yes and they tore the fekn apple building down,8 million damage,fk apple!

    2. Lone Ranger says:

      Americant weapons are crap and dont work. india already joined SCO and kicks out Americant backstabbers.Fuck the soros NGOs and CIA assholes.
      Fixed is Shlomo ?

    3. LXXIII says:

      Russian never backstabbed you, your western friends did. First you get used winter clothing, beggars can’t be choosers i guess. Then they voiced support to your farmer protesters, then they accused you of manipulating currency. I heard they even threatened to sanction you if you buy S-400 from Russia. Now be a good boy, bend over and let the west shaft you harder. But what do you know about geopolitical events anyway, You’re most probably a chest thumping, delusional dalit squatting in some slum browsing Southfront on your Xiaomi.

      1. Proud Hindu says:

        Ashok asshole go lick butt of xi

        1. LXXIII says:

          Xi? HAHAHAHA, wrong again. Have you got nothing to do other than hurling insults? Go join the protest or something? Or are you working in the tech center scamming business.

          1. Proud Hindu says:

            Nope.Im laughing because chinese assholes are collapsing ;)Im enjoying your salty tears.Im enjoying the collapse of china,russia and islam

          2. cechas vodobenikov says:

            hind do do embarrassed eat HIV w left hand

        2. Rafael says:

          Bitch you lick yankee buttholes, you suck british assholes, but you especially love Zion’s rectum. No surprise you’re so full of shite.

  6. Proud Hindu says:

    Russia is stuck in syria.It got defeated in libya.It barely won in ukraine.Regime change should be done for russia.Putin is suffering from memory loss.Shogu doesnt know how to handle russias affairs.

    1. Band Itkoitko says:

      If you sincerely think any of those things, you need to visit a doctor. It’s quite concerning. Take care of yourself.

      1. Proud Hindu says:

        Prove me wrong.

        1. Band Itkoitko says:

          I’m sorry to disappoint you. The burden of proof is on you. You are calling for illegal actions like a “regime change”, state absurd things, and insult the English language by the way you use it. I don’t know what kind of an argument can justify or prove the necessity for criminal acts. Best of luck.

          1. Proud Hindu says:

            Language doesnt matter as long as the messagebis understood.Eng is not my first language.Russia can annex crimea illegally and suport china against india so why cant i support regime change in russia?

          2. Band Itkoitko says:

            Now, please provide a proper legal argument how Russia “annexed” Crimea in an illegal way. Assume we are in an unbiased international tribunal. Which law was broken? How was it broken? Why does it apply? No worries about the English.

          3. Proud Hindu says:

            It occupied ukranian territory.It is using crimeans as cannon fodder in syria.It is oppressing other ethnicities. It is killing dissidents in europe.It is threatening europe with invasion.It is helping China which is the biggest problem the modern free world is facing.

          4. LRcaptain says:

            shut it you not fooling anyone James holm

          5. Proud Hindu says:

            Im not jens dont worry.Im an indian

          6. LRcaptain says:

            i wrote James holm
            not
            Jens

          7. JIMI JAMES says:

            Your insolent heterophobic rants will prevail to your downfall,yes!
            you will die from ignorance or utter stupidity whichever comes first,poor bugger!

          8. LRcaptain says:

            hunger if he is truly from India no one would hire someone with his manners

          9. Band Itkoitko says:

            These are merely propaganda slogans, Mr Hindu. You are showing nothing substantial.

            If you are sincerely worried about India, well, things might not be incredible there now, but considerable potential exists and hopefully they would manage to realize it in a good way. Clearly, the path of conflict (e.g., with China) is not the wisest choice. Look at the West. Always living in enmity and on the one-dimensional axis of dominance, it is now culturally and spiritually exhausted. Hatred and constantly seeing darkness in other people simply leads to nowhere.

          10. LXXIII says:

            “modern free world” the three most laughable words uttered by an Indian no less. I have one word for you. Dalit

          11. Proud Hindu says:

            Stfu paedophile worshipper.

          12. LXXIII says:

            Ha, i’m not a Muslim thank you. Also, resorting to hurling religious slurs other than meaningful rebuttal?

          13. Proud Hindu says:

            Ya fk off putin asslicker

          14. cechas vodobenikov says:

            CIA fairy make propaganda for zika masala

          15. JIMI JAMES says:

            More like its head annexed by cia:Law of the land,crimea was a state,thats the original documents,fk the cia,fk the low iq media,fk the lgbtqrx,fk do’minion too

          16. JIMI JAMES says:

            India is in brics,russia supports trade between india and china not war!
            Russia trrades freely with both its a free world not the cia narrated bullsht whom brainwashed you to believe in the lgbtqrx/swastika cursed to hate!

        2. JIMI JAMES says:

          Assad remains,drrrr
          crimea longest brigde in europe built with ukranian steel,drrrr
          Turkey,russias new big buddy and russia control libya,not usa/eu,
          Russia does thing a helluva lot cheaper than usa in combating cia/.teorrists
          Which why the balance of power now more than the match in the middle east!

          Keep blessing and condeming putin then,like good goym,yes. karmas a bitch:

    2. LRcaptain says:

      leave troll you are not hindu by any means for you would not dare say these things if you were.

      1. Proud Hindu says:

        I have lost trust in the russians.They have started betraying india.

        1. Band Itkoitko says:

          Nobody owes anything to India. What kind of entitlement is that?

        2. LRcaptain says:

          no they gave millions in weapons to India, they may ally with china in the pacific but in Asia is who they play nice with.

          Not only millions in weapons’ to India but licenses to so India may build copies of Russian weapons. Where the US only sells India crap weapons, pocketing the money for US firms. they also sold the blueprints along with these weapons so India can build spare part make local improvements for the weapons. But most of all it those factories create jobs were more of the counties military budget goes back in the economy instead of some Americans bank accounts.

          any hindu who is blind as you is to be reborn into as pig, I curse your next life to be cramped full of disease and you know that what your only purpose is.

        3. JIMI JAMES says:

          To be frank,not that russia has to be frank,but india or cia do not control russia,nor does china,they have a strong diictator the best in history to be frank whom can put it all over you degenerate lowlife poodles of the goyms,
          in the end take it how your may but unlike usa this astounding dictator was voted in legit/no iffs no butts,and he will be arouind for a long time,longer than biden ,if anything his minsets sharper than any of whoms millenials keep barking then,rigg your voting boxes,so much for neo-liberal democracy,pfft!

        4. LXXIII says:

          Must be high sniffing cow dung. What kind of entitlement does India has over Russia? Russian weapons are without any political strings attached. Moreover Russian weaponry are only part of your nation’s inventory. You have American, French, Israelis, Swedish and British weapons as well. Russia never voiced support for the farmers on strike, US and Co did. Russia never accused India of currency manipulation, US did.

    3. cechas vodobenikov says:

      untouchable with lice

  7. James says:

    It just confirms what I thought about Putin and his role as President. It sounds like he is an appointed Administrator by the Russian Elite to smooth over the corruption and past atrocities of the former Soviet Union to build a more stable country for the future. While I think it’s good to move on and leave the past behind, I think it should be at least acknowledged what has happened for the sake of the patriot’s that tried to do the right thing.

  8. klove and light says:

    1917… the british.zionist takeover of russia

    1. ro.niccolosi says:

      Yes, I had to frown as well that Soutfront uses the term ‘russian revolution’, while it wasn’t a russian revolution, in the contrary, a judeo-bolsjevik revolution of the Russian landmass

    2. Captain Freedom says:

      Is that why the british Invaded Russia in 1918 alongside 13 other countries, including the US to fight the reds?

      1. Rafael says:

        British invaded Russia to support every separatist movement and dissolution of the empire (their only goal), to prolong russian civil war as long as possible, to kill russian civilians with poison gas (device M), and to blackmail and sabotage White movement. Ultimately they openly betrayed them near St.Petersburg and then left northern army to die form starvation near estonian border.
        Other countries like US and Japan certainly had no intention to help Russia, or even to fight bolsheviks. Otherwise they could easily won the war.

        1. ro.niccolosi says:

          It were not actual brits to put all blame on. Remember the bombing of the king david hotel… it were brittish jews

      2. Degrelle says:

        The west supported the initial overthrow by the liberals in Russia, but the later civil war was not part of the plan. The socialists and the liberals had an alliance at first. As usual, the west used the communists as shock troops to break Russian state, but wanted the liberals to stay in power after.

        1. ro.niccolosi says:

          that’s one way of putting it, yes

  9. ro.niccolosi says:

    I’ve couldn’t have imagined better fireworks to commemorate stalin’s 40th year beneath the ground than his army bombing it’s own soviet parliament!

  10. thomas malthaus says:

    Being unsure what to believe, this seem to dovetail with Hillary Clinton’s Uranium One escapade.

  11. Fog of War says:

    Anyone else think Pootie poot is involved ?
    ” I personally addressed three letters to President Putin in May 2004, January and March 2005. Putin didn’t answer me. I wanted to explain to the President of the country that probably we are dealing with high treason of paramount importance.”

    1. Geraldine O'Hare says:

      2y0E3.Google.Com

      1. Cesare Tagliaferri says:

        thanks

      2. carlibia wright says:

        Yes! good site

  12. Degrelle says:

    Putin has massive Chabad/Zionist ties, nothing has changed.

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