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Russian Opposition Failed But Prepares For The Second Round

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Russian Opposition Failed But Prepares For The Second Round

The cover picture was provided by Luís Garcia

On January 23, Russian cities faced the “largest protests in contemporary history”; swarms of people cried out for the liberation of scandal-ridden ‘opposition’ leader Alexei Navalny, peaceful protesters were trampled and bitten by special police forces. That’s what the head-lines of pro-opposition tabloids said about the demonstrations that were held after the return of Navalny from Berlin to Moscow. In fact, the media hype aimed to instigate violence was much stronger than the real support among the population. The first wave failed, making further provocations more difficult.

According to the non-systemic opposition headed by Alexei Navalny, the alleged number of protesters in all 110 Russian cities was at least 250 thousand people. These numbers appear to be exaggerated, and are very dubious.

In relative terms, the highest level of public support for Navalny was expected to surface in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, and Khabarovsk. The largest protests were held in the Russian capital Moscow and the second largest city of St. Petersburg.

Estimates for the number of participants in the cities differ greatly. Russian Ministry of the Interior claimed that about 4000 Moscow citizens took to the streets in support of Navalny. Official data provided by police is based on the city’s video surveillance system, which is one of the best in the world in terms of number of cameras and their quality.

At the same time, the chief officer of the Anti-Corruption Foundation established by Navalny reported greater participation, by magnitude of ten, at 40,000 protesters. This data is based on reports of various journalists and activists. Unsurprisingly, over the years ‘the opposition’ has significantly increased protester turnout estimates at all its protests.

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For a more balanced analysis, it could be considered that about 12,000 took part in the protests in Moscow. This is three times more than the official figures and three times less than data provided by opposition.

The population of Moscow is officially estimated at over 12 million; according to conservative unofficial estimate it approaches 15 million. Moreover, the population of the Moscow Region is more than 7 million, according to unofficial data, it is near 9 million.

Even taking into account official data of the entire Moscow area, it makes about 20 million of population.

Thus, the real support of Navalny in the capital was approximately 0.06%. It was a complete failure.

In other cities where a high level of support was expected, the organizers also failed to receive appropriate support. In Novosibirsk, there were less than 3,000 participants. In Khabarovsk, where protests in support of former governor Sergei Furgalo still persist, opposition media reported that less than 1,000 people had taken to the streets. Moreover, judging by photographs of the protests these figures are clearly overestimated.

Russian Opposition Failed But Prepares For The Second Round

Protests in Khabarovsk. Source: Igor Volkov/Kommersant

Russian Opposition Failed But Prepares For The Second Round

Protests in Khabarovsk. Source: Dmintry Morgulis / TASS

In some cities, such as Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, the protests had minimal support, with about 100 participants in each city.

Aside the low numbers of participants, only every tenth protester was really supporting Navalny and his political ideas. The majority of protesters were unaware of his detention and his political projects; they were only following other mainstream agendas. Many of the protesters were minors, who took to the streets to have fun after months of staying at home. Some participants were demonstrating against the current Government in general or against alleged ‘arbitrariness of Putin’s regime’ that is actively promoted by ‘the opposition’. An example of this ‘arbitrariness’ is the fake documentary  ‘Putin’s Palaces’ that has been recently released by Navalny’s team.

In fact, the protests on January 23 demonstrated the total failure of pro-Western ‘opposition’, such weakness of public support was not even expected by Putin’s regime.

However, the real battle with ‘the opposition’ is held not on the streets of Russian cities, but online social media.

All protest organization and calls to take to the streets were held on social media networks. Hype over the protests was artificially raised on such platforms as VKontakte, Instagram, TikTok, etc, aiming to involve as many minors as possible. Highly likely the expectation was for the minors to become first victims of ‘cruel Putin’s regime’ and provoke their relatives to take part in the second more violent wave of protests.

However, the hopes of ‘the opposition’ were shattered. The protests were mainly calm, no casualties were officially reported. About 3000 protesters were detained all over the country, despite the fact that these were unauthorized demonstrations.

All minors detained during an uncoordinated rally in the center of Moscow were released after the arrival of their parents, said Olga Yaroslavskaya, children’s ombudsman of Moscow.

After the protests in Belarus during August 2020, Russian law enforcement did not use violence and acted quite restrained, only responding to protesters’ attacks or obvious law violations. As a result of this police restraint, protester clashes with the police that took place in St. Petersburg and Moscow resulted in more injured security officials (42) than civilians (29) who went to the hospital after the rallies.

Peaceful protests were not what pro-Western ‘opposition’ expected. Obviously, their major aim was ‘to take pictures’ that would become a proof of fierce violence by law enforcement, aimed to inspire more supporters and legitimating their efforts of destabilization.

The traditional tactic of provoking clashes with police by small aggressive groups was employed. Attacking police officers, protesters attempted to instigate large-scale violence.

 

Another video from January 23 shows the protesters surrounding special police forces.

More videos show the protesters’ misbehavior, they vandalized monuments and burned the Russian flag.

After realizing the fail of the first round of protests, the organizers continued their provocations online.

On January 24 social media was flooded with fake claims about protesters who were allegedly killed by police officers.

Russian Opposition Failed But Prepares For The Second Round

@i_love_you_sister: “Today the protests were held in Moscow. My sister Lisa took part ,,, She was beaten to death… Funeral will be in a week”

One of the fake victims of the ‘violent regime’ was popular blogger Vitaly Tsal. According to some fake accounts, showing his ‘last photo’, he was brutally killed by police officers. However, this photo emerged online after his surgery to the nose in June 2020.

Russian Opposition Failed But Prepares For The Second Round

@nutakoe20: “Oppositioner Vitaly Tsal was brutally killed by police officers, He died in a hospital. I remember you, bro, and will never forget you.”

The continued online campaign proves that the protests on January 23 were not a one-time action, but an attempt to launch a long-term process with periodic rallies. It was only an introduction to the main wave of protests that should start on January 29, when the court will decide on the detention of Alexei Navalny. The organizers likely believe that such a long-term campaign will obtain an alternative source for growth due to general dissatisfaction with continued coronavirus restrictions.

However, the ‘opposition’ has already missed the key point and lost its first battle. The teens had fun and received their dose of adrenaline, women with posters have walked down the streets and danced in a ring at -50 degrees Celsius frost, while the main provocateurs were detained and are now treating their abrasions. Navalny’s Team failed to take the necessary ‘violent picture’ and thus, to gain more supporters.

The protests scheduled for January 29 will gain even less support, as they will mainly be dedicated to supporting the liberation of Navalny personally. The large part of those who took to the streets on January 23 were not supporting him, but demonstrated against the current regime, or were not even followers of politics and clearly unaware of Navalny and his political ideas.

Anyway, the on-going destabilization campaign in Russia is only at an early stage. The large support and amounts of money that were provided to Navalny’s team from the West will not let them abandon the campaign even after total failure.

Remarkably, the US Embassy published on its website detailed information on the planned protests, with exact places and instructions. Washington openly instigated an unauthorized rally, interfering in Russia’s internal affairs.

Russian Opposition Failed But Prepares For The Second Round

Daughter of former US Senator John McCain

The large destabilization campaign in Russia that started just a few days after the Biden inauguration turned out to be a poorly planned operation. The goal of puppet Navalny’s team was to provoke heavy violence, possible deaths; death of minors would be even better for a more impressive image. They failed. Navalny’s real support among the population was not comparable to the online hype. Now, the new round of propaganda starts in an attempt to present protests larger than they were, create a myth about casualties with fake deaths in Tik Tok. Such desperate attempts are ridiculous and are doomed to fail. Navalny will likely be jailed; and pro-Western ‘opposition’ will be forced to create a new leading figure (according to Belorussian scenario it may become Navalny’s wife), as well as to find new methods to manipulate public opinion in order to at least maintain the support they already have.

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Dick Von Dast'Ard

The easiest way to negate Navalny is to simultaneously expose him for what he is (i.e stooge for western intelligence interests) and to crack down upon corruption, in particular traitorous corruption.

Where would a Russian Federation under a global liberalist agenda be, how would Russians and Russian values be treated by such a Navalny style (Western puppet) regime?

HiaNd

Russian problem of corruption is less acute than in US is today.
and it is not something that can be resolved by simple political decision, Presidential decree or something similar…
Not even if Putin in person puts all his personal authority and weight behind some “anti-corruption program”.
It has to be above all done thoroughly, through clear popular and political support for something as radical as that.
Since corruption is widely spread and goes to the highest spheres of RF.
Jews did great job in destroying Russian society values in the Yeltsin days.
Repercussions of that period are visible even today.

Freemon Sandlewould

It’s unkind to Hitler to compare these clowns to him.

thomas malthaus

Far be it for me to judge what passes for a Russian peaceful protest. Homes and businesses weren’t pillaged nor torched that I’m aware.

Few can deny that significant corruption exists between government officials and businesses.

My unsolicited advice to common Russians is to prepare for a global financial whirlwind the best way possible. Don’t anticipate a date. Just prepare.

Harry Smith

Russia differs from USA. If those monkeys started to crash somebody’s business, I don’t think even police could protect them from businesses owners. Navalniy has 80% hate rating in Russia. Navalniy in prison is a very big loss for Kremlin. Now they need to find someone who will be equally hated by population.

Scaathor

Navalny in prison is beneath the Kremlins radar. He is nothing but a liar, swindler, substance-abuser and cockroach for hire. He’ll be convicted of his crimes and will languish in a cell like any other common criminal.

Good riddance to bad rubbish :-)

HiaNd

Navalny has “evolved” from everything you just mentioned now into CIA operative and head of the staged CIA organised protests.
as such he is on FSB (thus on Kremlin’s) radar even in prison.
this is not any longer children’s game.

ABhishek Ranjan
HiaNd

PLEASE PEOPLE FLAG THESE BASTARDS that Are spamming

Adam Hand
Cheryl Brandon

CIA ASSET AND PAID DE STABILSIER FOR RUSSIA’S RESOURCES. CAUSE, US, UK AND JEWS do not care about russians. they view russians as inferior since the 9th Century.

HiaNd

exactly, they need Russia (resources) not Russians

Jens Holm

Its so pathetic reading this. Every oppostion in Russia is driven by the west.

Rhodium 10

Surely west dont support comunist party or far right party in Russia…but pro western liberals have all support because neither B-52 nor sanctions works vs Russia.

Ronnie&MargaretInDementia

If the Americans thought the communists could bring down Putin they would hand them the cash. US has zero morality. The initial scheme is to oust Putin, with Navalny or not, after that install another Yeltsin, probably Khordokovsky whose open democracy NGO funds Navalny and the protests generally. Even the US doesn’t want the crank Navalny in power, he is just the stalking horse and a completely expendable asset, like criminal Browder. All will be settled in good time, Putin always plays the long game. I expect the US to ramp up in Ukraine too, they’re happy poking the bear with Ukrainian cannon fodder and the Ukraine nazis seem happy to die for them.

Jens Holm

Thats vertical incorrect crap.

Russia has no good infrastructure in center or decentralized. Thats devided by lack of trust against it own population.

We allow everybody to be elected apart from hard criminals. By that we can see, which oppinions and ideas people prefare. By that we change things from lowest to highest levels and mainly are doing pretty well.

Normal people can see that. The Russian population is totally kept away from any influence as You do it as some patent for, what some few decide whats wrong and whats right.

By that infantile paranpya thinking, You are as low as Your are and kept like sheep. There aere no tools to change that by elections as well as education.

Well, I kind of dont care, but dont blame EU, Nato and USA for it.

JIMI JAMES

comment image

Jens Holm

Nice pick. Russian drinking actualy has been reduced very much and the crimerate has lowered a lot.

cechas vodobenikov

for a dug addict that claims she doesn’t care your actions bemuse–either you are a liar/hypocrite or paid by CIA

Cromwell

Next time they ramp up Ukraine Putin really does need to take the gloves off and create some new facts on the ground,once the Ukrainian army started murdering people in Donbas he should have done it then.

Jens Holm

Its not like that. Rusia remain in old days with low ineffective production based on old days.

Its seemes You deny to take in the good parts of the liberalisme as well as You are not able to take in konservatisme as well.

By that the cake to share remain small. You should not blame us for that and even we are agressive. Its true we do defend several countires from the Russian Neocolonialisme and it collapse. They have to choose and se what better for them then joining Russian way. Those hardly ever was Russia or should have been.

We want as much as Europe as open for posible devellopments, but even Stalin feared to loose control and denyed the Russian people Marshall help.

Ypu see the difference today – Or do You.

JIMI JAMES

comment image

Rhodium 10

Yes I see the difference!…Navalny would be another Yeltsin…. good relationship with West while Russia is divided as consecuence of civil war and foreign companies and mafia gangsters take control of the economy!…when west friendly Yeltsin was in power Ukraine asked to be member of NATO, Chechenina was independent, Yugoslavia was divided, Baltic countries became members of NATO..later others like Poland, Checoslovaquia..etc…Moldava, Armenia, Azerbajan were in war…..people fled to West….yes Indeed Navalny is more useful than B-52, ICBM and air carriers to destroy Russia.

Jens Holm

West dont see Navalny like that and Navalny see west as that as well.

Your focus is completly wrong. The main parts of his kind of opposition is about internal afffairs for non devellopment very much driven by theft by corruption – and theft.

You totally ignore Navalny with friends also by a lot of data and well produced 2 hours movie show Putin now has build a 120 million dollar to himself for taxpayers money. comment image

I again will remind You that USSR collapsed themself. We in west did not. And about Jeltzin and for that matter Gorbatjov those clever and hard working people with others should have replaced the almost dead warheroes in Moscow.

But Russia did not.

You seemes not to know what economy is, when its collapsed assisted by big loans none can pay back, because there is no production.

And forget what You stole by Neocolonialisme all the way west of Berlin as NO LEARNER.

Anmd You have no resåect for, what we have done. We systematic has invested in those cpuntries with real money but also with demands for responsability, what NO RUSSIANS HAS LEARNED.

Its so stupid leaving those Neocolonies plundred and they should bow and obey until Russia in year 3000 or later might come back. SEveral pof those countries now are doing much better. We raise them to improve themself. By that they make money and products, so they can buy our stuff with own money.

I will not cpmment single countries, but I thik You should read about it at internet. Its well descriebed and I only see the Russian “no matter what model” far away from whats fair.

As EU and Nato, I will never allow Russians take those many countries again unless the populations vote for it.

If Russia will win, it will be offering those countries something they can use in fair trade and devellopment. Thats what we try in EU, Nato and the Kiev convention.

Who here wants Belarus???? NONE. Who wants Ukraine. Well they have some farming and iron and nikel. They seemes even mpre stubbern and corrupt then the Russians, but they certainly are close collacted same of a kind.

How can we be friends with people telling we support Nazis??? Should we support ancient Kremlin collapsed Communist, KGB and an Ironwall instead???

If You were more nice, there would not be so many of those fanatic Nationalists and even nazis in that region. You deny to see de-escalation is needed.

cechas vodobenikov

Jenny needs drug rehab–exposes her racism, low education—shows fake photo of half constructed hotel owned by rotenberg…more proof Navalny CIA tool

Rhodium 10

USSR collapses because they have to feed beggars East Europen states …Why Russia want to take Beggars?…thats the excuse to deploy NATO troops there close to Russia!….Belarus uprising have failed similar path will take Navalny protests…Germany want to rid of these Beggars states ..and they want another diferent agenda that it is an economical partnership with Russia ( the bridge to Asia where Germany have his largest markets)…therefore they have allowed Nordstream 2 which means the facto the end of Ukraine Soyuz gas pipe lines and the incoming fees!…USA have used economic sanctions and failed, NATO troops close to Russia and dont fear Russia…now are using the Navalny Joker clown card and will fail!

cechas vodobenikov

jens can’t defend cheese dinkmark from nazis–now US colony…u become more callow each comment. SF free entertainment

Captain Freedom

Is Jens finally talking some sense? Or did he utterly fail to use the english language once again

HiaNd

Don’t get too optimistic. He just took wrong pills this morning…

Cromwell

No, but Navalny IS.I don’t think the Russian Communist party who are the largest opposition to Putin are stooges of the West,but who knows,Navalny has been seen more than once entering the US Embassy in Moscow,if it walks like a Duck,you know the rest.

Jens Holm

I dont care half a rotten camel. Look at his initiatives and wishes.

Some old song says: If You cant love the ones You love, love the ones, You wish.

If any people cant be elected apart from hard criminals and very retarded something is terrible wrong. And where are the limits in Krasnodjarsk – 70% of the votes wasnt enough.

The correct acting should be to take that Man and his know how”comment image ” in and order him to make exact the same thing in the whole Russia.

cechas vodobenikov

jens learning to play with crayons in kindergarten…nice map from CIA

Cheryl Brandon

not the COMMUNIST PARTY

cechas vodobenikov

the actual opposition is despised by CIA—navalny not opposition; he is blogger that is paid by CIA

Me&Myself None

Interesting how Putin and his administration love the white supremacist and the extreme right wing nuts in the western world, yet look at Meghan McCain (a right wing nut herself) is supporting Putin’s arch enemy.

Jens Holm

I hardly knpw here, but reading about here makes it non strange totalitary Leaders and Totalitary influencers makes their own clubs.

Russia never was socialisme for the low educated masses. It was and is elite, which pr defintion know, what the rest of us need. They not even has to ask.

Thats only a reflexion, I dont know her well.

JIMI JAMES

Russian education standards are superior to yours in every which way and how!
Insulting intellects only makes you dumber than dumb,cia/5th graders.

Jens Holm

If Ruusians was that superior in education standards, they would not be as they are today.

Maybee they had not even collapsed in 1991.

cechas vodobenikov

few Russians wish to live in cultureless colony like denmark or worse USA, except to make easy money from stupid amerikan trickster’s paradise

cechas vodobenikov

your stupidity knows no limits

JIMI JAMES

Nothing significance to add to the equation then makes it the problem and upon yourself.

cechas vodobenikov

I suspect u are durakistani—repeating fake news fabrications

Kefir

Navalny was well aware that he had violated parole under Russian law and that he would be detained there as a violator of the law, but he went on a challenge anyway. What is not history with Lenin instructive enough, when he was richly backed by foreign finances, smuggled from Switzerland back to Russia, and what massacres he then committed in Russia, crimes unprecedented against his own nation.

JIMI JAMES

askenazis (todays soros/cia/supporters) You are way outta line askenazi,drr.

Jens Holm

I dont see he has violated any laws.

cechas vodobenikov

jens stupid…his brother in prison for embezzlement—CIA Navalny violated parole related to his embezzlement conviction–these people are not permitted to be politicians in civilized nations and are incarcerated for violations

Rhodium 10

One point that I have seen in this protests in that Russian security forces in Moscow and St Pete….are well trained,equipped and acts very effectively…it seems that like the armed forces has taken a leap in quality. and organization.

El Mashi

Navalney is the Yankee Doodle candidate who sadly has little support from the Russian people. The Russian people rightly see Navaltny for what he is ‘the United States opposition to Russia’s sovereignty.

Jens Holm

Very good I have seatbelt on my armchair.

If the fellow has that few supporters and anyone else has, we in Denmark let them be candidates and they are not voted into local parlaments as well as to the top.

By having hardly no votes, they know their real seize and cant use the usual trick, that they are kept down by any.

Nazis as well as communist do exist here, but none of them even come near any seats in the Parlament as well as in the local ones(They of course as we has to do their politics inside the constitution frame).

cechas vodobenikov

because CIA controlled danes not educated to think —obsequious slaves must have only USA approved govt

Alejandro Bonifacio

i felt sick when i watched the fatty face of mccain daugther

Scaathor

Navalny is a pathetic little c*nt. Is this the best that Western regime-chnagers can manage?????

LOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

F U all :-)

JIMI JAMES

Russia ought to pit communists against these cia/phoneys in the future,defend the motherland!

Jens Holm

Why not. Russia already has collapsed themself twice the last 100 years and seemes to have learned nothing.

cechas vodobenikov

Jenny needs drug rehab—LSD and schizophrenia thorazine bad combination. ask your CIA doctor for more Seroquel—excellent for jens character disorder

cechas vodobenikov

2 opposition partis
largest =communist party
#2= LDPR
Navalny’s apple party cannot elect even a novichok inspector in Tomsk

Cheryl Brandon

the largest Opposition Party is the Comminist Party of Russia so, how come Navalny the Eu/us’s parrot , is somehow the “opposition leader”??? wtf

HiaNd

Western MSM and secret services ( CIA, MI6, German BND, etc.) manipulate (ignorant, ill informed) Western public. Manipulate their opinion on real situation in Russia, with the staged protests, poisonings etc.
All smoke and mirrors only.
Communist Party doesn’t cooperate with the CIA, MI6 so they were forced to stick with liberal blogger Navalny that Russians totally ignore….

Jens Holm

Well, navalny is real opposition. The other ones are keepers of old days for stability a kind of as Titanic.

Cheryl Brandon

Navalny is ignorant of the fact that, the EU,US AND jews DO NOT LIKE Russians. This has a consistent idea since the 9th century.Navalny ignores this historical FACT and, pretends he is the “opposition leader with 2% like Guyfough in Venezuela whom 88% of Venezuelans did not know at all??? THE COMMUNIST PARTY actually ruled and created a lot of systems for RUSSIANS. 27,000,000 Russians died fighting Nazis. In 2014 EU/US/Jews placed Nazis on Russia’s western fronteiir..F..king lying thieving Nazi Navalny

Jens Holm

Thats total biased crap and even confirmed by many versions from very diffrent bsources at the internet.

27 million killed must be the many Russians Stalin killed himself before, after and under WW2 as well as from the countries taken in fx by the Molotov – Rippentrop.

You have no idea about facts and never will.

cechas vodobenikov

Navalny supports crimean reintegration; jens takes too much LSD….CIA kind to jens…jens–racist like Navalny—

AM Hants

Slightly off topic, but, same crowd involved. Why has the US sent 3 Destroyers to the Black Sea, to celebrate Biden occupation of the White House and his Ukraine investments?

You would have thought USS Donald Cooke, would have learnt it’s lesson, concerning Black Sea and irritating Bastion? But, no, they are back for more, as Bastion grins widely. What could go wrong? How many sailors will try resigning this time?

Russia Deploys Crimea Missile Systems – 3 US Warships Enter Black Sea
https://www.zerohedge.com/geopolitical/russia-deploys-crimea-missile-system-three-us-warships-enter-black-sea

Jens Holm

It the black sea named as such by the greeks and not the russian sea. Today its even less Russian sea. Any map shows that. Russia has no patent.

Russia for very good and fair reasons dont control Bulgaria, Roumania, Ukraine and Georgia. Add or subtract Krimera as You wishcomment image

AM Hants

Jens, do you know anything about the 1936 CONVENTION REGARDING THE REGIME OF THE STRAITS, which was adapted in Montreux, Switzerland on 20 July 1936? Are you aware of the reasons why they had to reach agreement of the Convention? Are you aware of the fact that as the US refused to sign up, they have no say, with regards what can and cannot happen in the Black Sea? Now why did the US refuse to sign up to the 1936 Convention Regarding The Regime of the Straits? Why did the US refuse to ratify the Convention of the Sea, which is the International Law of the Seas and why do they assume that they can dictate terms and conditions, with regards what goes on in all the Seas and the Oceans, including Arctic, Black Sea and the various other contentious waters?

ARTICLE 8

For the purposes of the present Convention, the definitions of vessels of war and of their specification together with those relating to the calculation of tonnage shall be as set forth in Annex II to the present Convention.

ARTICLE 9

Naval auxiliary vessels specifically designed for the carriage of fuel, liquid or non-liquid, shall not be subject to the provisions of Article 13 regarding notification, nor shall they be counted for the purpose of calculating the tonnage which is subject to limitation under Articles 14 and 18, on condition that they shall pass through the Straits singly. They shall, however, continue to be on the same footing as vessels of war for the purpose of the remaining provisions governing transit.

The auxiliary vessels specified in the preceding paragraph shall only be entitled to benefit by the exceptional status therein contemplated if their armament does not include: for use against floating targets, more than two guns of a maximum calibre of 105 millimeters; for use against aerial targets, more than two guns of a maximum calibre of 75 millimeters.

ARTICLE 10

In time of peace, light surface vessels, minor war vessels and auxiliary vessels, whether belonging to Black Sea or non-Black Sea Powers, and whatever their flag, shall enjoy freedom of transit through the Straits without any taxes or charges whatever, provided that such transit is begun during daylight and subject to the conditions laid down in Article 13 and the Articles following thereafter.

Vessels of war other than those which fall within the categories specified in the preceding paragraph shall only enjoy a right of transit under the special conditions provided by Articles 11 and 12.

ARTICLE 11

Black Sea Powers may send through the Straits capital ships of a tonnage greater than that laid down in the first paragraph of Article 14, on condition that these vessels pass through the Straits singly, escorted by not more than two destroyers.

ARTICLE 12

Black Sea Powers shall have the right to send through the Straits, for the purpose of rejoining their base, submarines constructed or purchased outside the Black Sea, provided that adequate notice of the laying down or purchase of such submarines shall have been given to Turkey.

1936 CONVENTION REGARDING THE REGIME OF THE STRAITS

Submarines belonging to the said Powers shall also be entitled to pass through the Straits to be repaired in dockyards outside the Black Sea on condition that detailed information on the matter is given to Turkeys.

In either case, the aid submarines must travel by day and on the surface, and must pass through the Straits singly.

ARTICLE 13

The transit of vessels of war through the Straits shall be preceded by a notification given to the Turkish Government through the diplomatic channel. The normal period of notice shall be eight days; but it is desirable that in the case of non-Black Sea Powers this period should be increased to fifteen days. The notification shall specify the destination, name, type and number of the vessels, as also the date of entry for the outward passage and, if necessary, for the return journey. Any change of date shall be subject to three days’ notice.

Entry into the Straits for the outward passage shall take place within a period of five days from the date given in the original notification. After the expiry of this period, a new notification shall be given under the same conditions as for the original notification.

When effecting transit, the commander of the naval force shall, without being under any obligation to stop, communicate to a signal station at the entrance to the Dardanelles or the Bosphorus the exact composition of the force under his orders.

ARTICLE 14

The maximum aggregate tonnage of all foreign naval forces which may be in course of transit through the Straits shall not exceed 15,000 tons, except in the cases provided for in Article 11 and in Annex III to the present Convention.

The forces specified in the preceding paragraph shall not, however, comprise more than nine vessels.

Vessels whether belonging to Black Sea or non-Black Sea Powers, paying visits to a port in the Straits, in accordance with the provisions of Article 17, shall not be included in this tonnage.

Neither shall vessels of war which have suffered damage during their- passage through the Straits be included in this tonnage; such vessels, while undergoing repair, shall be subject to any special provisions relating to security laid down by Turkey.

ARTICLE 15

Vessels of war in transit through the Straits shall in no circumstances make use of any aircraft which they may be carrying.

ARTICLE 16

Vessels of war in transit through the Straits shall not, except in the event of damage or peril of the sea, remain therein longer than is necessary for them to effect the passage.

ARTICLE 17

Nothing in the provisions of the preceding Articles shall prevent a naval force of any tonnage or composition from paying a courtesy visit of limited duration to a port in the Straits, at the invitation of the Turkish Government. Any such force must leave the-Straits by the same route as that by which it

1936 CONVENTION REGARDING THE REGIME OF THE STRAITS

entered, unless it fulfils the conditions required for passage in transit through the Straits as laid down by Articles 10, 14 and 18.

ARTICLE 18

(1) The aggregate tonnage which non-Black Sea Powers may have in that sea in time of peace shall be limited as follows:

1. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) below, the aggregate tonnage of the said Powers shall not exceed 30,000 tons;

2. (b) If at any time the tonnage of the strongest fleet in the Black Sea shall exceed by at least 10,000 tons the tonnage of the strongest fleet in that sea at the date of the signature of the present Convention, the aggregate tonnage of 30,000 tons mentioned in paragraph (a) shall be increased by the same amount, up to a maximum of 45,000 tons. For this purpose, each Black Sea Power shall, in conformity with Annex IV to the present Convention, inform the Turkish Government, on the 1st January and the 1st July of each year, of the total tonnage of its fleet in the Black Sea; and the Turkish Government shall transmit this information to the other High Contracting Parties and to the Secretary- General of the League of Nations;

3. (c) The tonnage which any one non-Black Sea Power may have in the Black Sea shall be limited to two-thirds of the aggregate tonnage provided for in paragraphs (a) and (b) above;

4. (d) In the event, however, of one or more non-Black Sea Powers desiring to send naval forces into the Black Sea, for a humanitarian purpose, the said forces, which shall in no case exceed 8,000 tons altogether, shall be allowed to enter the Black Sea without having to give the notification provided for in Article 13 of the present Convention, provided an authorisation is obtained from the Turkish Government in the following circumstances: if the figure of the aggregate tonnage specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) above has not been reached and will not be exceeded by the despatch of the forces which it is desired to send, the Turkish Government shall grant the said authorisation within the shortest possible time after receiving the request which has been addressed to it × if the said figure has already been reached or if the despatch of the forces which it is desired to send will cause it to be exceeded, the Turkish Government will immediately inform the other Black Sea Powers of the request for authorisation, and if the said Powers make no objection within twenty-four hours of having received this information, the Turkish Government shall, within forty-eight hours at the latest, inform the interested Powers of the reply which it has decided to make to their request.

Any further entry into the Black Sea of naval forces of non-Black Sea Powers shall only be effected within the available limits of the aggregate tonnage provided for in paragraphs (a) and (b) above.

(2) Vessels of war belonging to non-Black Sea Powers shall not remain in the Black Sea more than twenty-one days, whatever be the object of their presence there…’

https://cil.nus.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/formidable/18/1936-Convention-Regarding-the-Regime-of-the-Straits.pdf

Jens Holm

You insist in others then Russians should keep agreements. Whats legal for bringing up Ukranian ships and for that matter take Krimera??????

cechas vodobenikov

low educated jens change subject…very low educated Danes even lower proportion university education than amerikans cannot comprehend. autonomous region Crimea voted to reintegrate w Russia—by 97% vote per UN convention on self determination. When Scotland secedes from UK Denmark can become colony of UK

Jens Holm

You repeat Your stupidity again. I take it again. Our main strenght very much also is, that we educate many just below the university level and then can produce almost whatever we want and need.

I have told and written many times about Krimera too. It seemes You still are in Your traumecenter about this.

Krimera was a part of a trade. Ýou cant just take it back. A minimum should be compensation. Another version could have been Russia denied Ukraine should have it as well as its nay andnavuý facilities.

I have my own – its seemes only own – oppinion about those 2 Russian oblasts. They never was a real part of Ukraine but a tool to control Ukraine if nasty things happend. And they did. USSR collapsed.

So those never never Russian parts anytime should be voted back. Instead we see a semiwar where people are killed for no good reasons.

DEnmark did that in 1920. We coulkd have taken back more parts of German then we did. We instead voted and took about half back with the 100% danes in klanguage as well back.

That made a great reltionship with Germany but not with Hitrler and Nazisme. Today we also have very good relations with the Germans. Thats named as respect for each other.

Some mny years before that Our belowed cousins named Norway wanted to be their own instead of being with us. We didnt fight that. They made their own contry and even took a Danish Prince as King.

Thats how it sometimes can be done, if You not as in USSR only have a choise between Communists and Nazis. Russia makes Nazis by their devastating attitudes. They have had that since the Bolsjevics deyed to understand Ukrainians also was their own and even fighted hard to avoid Bolsjevisme.

I dont like Nazisme as well, but I do understand whoi makes the contrasts made by exactlky whome. Just as the Tzars they didnt understand KEEP. And just as the nazis, they took much more then they could keep.

Its no excuse other colonials has done exact same mistakes. But telling Bolsjevics are more clever then the rest of us seemes to be wrong. They are very slow learners because they hardly are allowed to know truth which is no constructed by their elite.

AM Hants

Sorry, can you translate that?

Why would Russia wish to bring up Ukrainian ships? There again, aren’t there a lot of Ukrainian ships, riddled with rust, that are waiting to be picked up from Crimea, since 2014? They could not move them then, owing to the condition of the naval vessels and they are even worse now.

Krimera????? Is that a cross between a Chimera and Kris Kringle aka Santa Claus?

Jens Holm

They has.

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