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Papal Visit To Iraq: Breaking Historic Ground Pockmarked By Religious And Political Minefields

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Papal Visit To Iraq: Breaking Historic Ground Pockmarked By Religious And Political Minefields


Submitted by James M. Dorsey

When Pope Francis sets foot in Iraq on Friday, he will be breaking historic ground while manoeuvring religious and political minefields. So will his foremost religious counterpart, Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali al-Husayni al-Sistani, one of the Shia Muslim world’s foremost scholars and leaders.

The three-day visit contrasts starkly with past papal trips to the Middle East that included Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, the United Arab Emirates and Azerbaijan, states that, unlike neighbouring Iran, are more accustomed to inter-faith interactions because of their Sunni Muslim history and colonial experience or in the case of Shia-majority Azerbaijan a modern history of secular and communist rule.

Unlike in Azerbaijan, Pope Francis is venturing in Iraq into a Shia-majority country that has been wracked by sectarian violence in which neighbouring Iran wields significant religious and political influence and that is home to religious scholars that compete with their counterparts in the Islamic republic. As a result, Iraqi Shiite clerics often walk a tightrope.

Scheduled to last 40 minutes, Ayatollah Al-Sistani’s meeting with the pope, a high point of the visit, constitutes a double-edged sword for a 90-year-old religious leader born in Iran who has a complex relationship with the Islamic republic.

Ayatollah Al-Sistani has long opposed Iran’s system of direct rule by clerics. As a result, he has eschewed executive and political authority while playing a key role in reconciling Iraqi Shiites and Sunnis, promoting inter-tribal and ethnic peace, and facilitating the drafting and ratification of a post-US invasion constitution.

Ayatollah Al-Sistani’s influence, however, has been evident at key junctures in recent Iraqi history. Responding to an edict by the ayatollah, Iraqis flocked to the polls in 2005 despite the risk of jihadist attacks. Large numbers enlisted in 2017 to fight the Islamic State after Ayatollah Al-Sistani rallied the country. The government of Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi resigned in 2019, four days after Ayatollah Al-Sistani expressed support for protesters demanding sweeping reforms.

To avoid controversy, Ayatollah Al-Sistani is likely to downplay the very aspects of a meeting with the pope that political and religious interlocutors of the head of the Catholic church usually bask in: the ability to leverage the encounter to enhance their legitimacy and position themselves as moderate and tolerant peacemakers.

With state-controlled media in Iran largely refraining from mentioning the visit and Iranian Spiritual Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei claiming the mantle of leadership of the Muslim world, Ayatollah Al-Sisi is likely to avoid projecting the encounter as a recognition by the pope that he is Shiite Islam’s chief interlocutor or that the holy Iraqi city of Najaf, rather than Iran’s Qom, is the unrivalled capital of Shiite learning.

Sources close to Ayatollah Al-Sistani, who rarely receives foreign dignitaries, have described his encounter on Saturday with the pope as a “private meeting.”

“Khamenei will not like it,” said Mehdi Khalaji, an Islamic scholar who studied in Qom and is a senior fellow at The Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

Critics are likely to note that Ayatollah Al-Sistani was meeting the pope but had failed to receive in December Iranian Chief Justice Ebrahim Raisi, who is touted as a potential presidential candidate in elections scheduled for June and/or successor to Ayatollah Khamenei.

Mr. Khalaji noted that Iran has long downplayed Ayatollah Al-Sistani’s significance that is boosted by the fact that he maintains a major presence not only in Najaf but also in Qom where he has a seminary, a library, and a clerical staff.

Shiite scholars suggest that is one reason why Pope Francis and Ayatollah Al-Sistani are unlikely to issue a Shiite-Christian equivalent of the Declaration of Human Fraternity that was signed in Abu Dhabi two years ago by the pontiff and Sheikh Ahmed el-Tayeb, the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar, the Cairo-based historic cathedral of Islamic learning.

“Al-Sistani does not want to provoke Khamenei. There is no theological basis to do so. Muslims cannot be brothers of Christians. Mainstream Islamic theological schools see modern Christianity as inauthentic. They view Jesus as the divine prophet, not as the incarnation of God and his son. In short, for official Islam, today’s Christianity is nothing short of heresy,” Mr. Khalaji said, referring to schools of thought predominant in Iran. “Sunnis are a little bit more flexible,” he added.

Mr. Khalaji noted further that Shiite religious seminaries have no intellectual tradition of debate about inter-faith dialogue nor do any of the offices of religious leaders have departments concerned with interacting with other faith groups. “The whole discourse is absent in Shia Islam,” Mr. Khalaji said.

That has not stopped Ayatollah Al-Sistani from maintaining discreet contacts with the Vatican over the years.

In a bid to popularize the concept of inter-faith dialogue, Pope Francis is scheduled to hold a multi-religious prayer meeting in Ur, the presumed birthplace of Abraham, revered as the father of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

By the same token, Pope Francis, concerned about the plight of Christians in the Middle East and particularly Iraq that has seen the diverse minority shrink from 1.2 million before the 2003 US invasion to at most 300,000 today, will want to build on the Shiite leader’s past calls for protection of the minority faith group from attacks by militants and condemnation of “heinous crimes” committed against them.

The pope hopes that a reiteration by Ayatollah Al-Sistani of his empathy for the plight of Christians would go a long way in reducing pressure on the community from Iranian-backed militias that has stopped many from returning to homes they abandoned as they fled areas conquered by the Islamic State.

The pope’s visit, little more than a month after a bomb blast in Baghdad killed 32 people and days after rockets hit an airbase housing US troops, has sparked hope among some Iraqis that it will steer the country away from further violence.

That hope was boosted by a pledge by Saraya Awliyat Al-Dam (Custodians of the Blood), the pro-Iranian group believed to have attacked the airbase, to suspend its operations during the pope’ visit “as a sign of respect for Imam Al-Sistani.”

Said Middle East scholar Hayder al-Khoei: “There will be no signing of a document, but both (Pope Francis and Ayatollah Al-Sistani) are advocates of interfaith dialogue and condemn violence committed in the name of religion. The meeting will undoubtedly strengthen the voices and organizations who still believe in dialogue.”

Dr. James M. Dorsey is an award-winning journalist and a senior fellow at Nanyang Technological University’s S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore and the National University of Singapore’s Middle East Institute.


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Hasbara Hunter

The Devilworshipping, Paedophile, Warcriminal Jorge Mario Bergoglio is a False Prophet….


Clarence Spangle

“The fairies, in what nation soever they converse, have but one universal king, which some poets of ours call King Oberon; but the Scripture calls Beelzebub, prince of demons. The ecclesiastics likewise, in whose dominions soever they be found, acknowledge but one universal king, the Pope.”—Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan, 1651 https://thetablet.org/knights-of-malta-chief-migrant-deaths-represent-greatest-mass-grave-since-ww2/# #holohoax


johnny rotten

The chaplain of the coup and Nazi Vileda continues his dirty work to promote the colonial interests of the West, his real goal is to divide, to weaken the unity of the Iraqi people, and he will surely have a gay bandwagon in his wake, for promotional purposes means.

Clarence Spangle

“When the fairies are displeased with anybody, they are said to send their elves to pinch them. The ecclesiastics, when they are displeased with any civil state, make also their elves, that is, superstitious, enchanted subjects, to pinch their princes, by preaching sedition; or one prince, enchanted with promises, to pinch another.”—Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan, 1651 https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/7f5c60ea810749a0ac0e8119a1f82a118be7c1373bdd18a2e9ef6012a32ad1bf.jpg

Peter Jennings

Religions and leaders of religions need to realise, as leaders of nations already do, the right of others to exist. Christians, Muslims Sunni’s, Shia’s, etc, also need to realise that there is no devine help coming, only the folly of man, who was initially responsible for creating these religions and without any outside assistance. One man’s supernatural nonsense is no better or worse than the next man’s.

Clarence Spangle

“Looked at from this point of view the apparent insanity of our government’s foreign policy is revealed as a piece of shrewd calculating logic, put into effect in order to promote the Jéwish idea of a struggle for world-mastery.” ~ Mein Kampf, The Right to Self-Defense https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/a10222feb323f47b8e0f6b28ecfedae0fdf1ab463d288125579f1146a56747fc.jpg

Hasbara Hunter

In the meantime Lucifer rules on Earth

The great Dragon was thrown down, that ancient Serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, the Great Deceiver of the whole World…He was cast down to the earth, and his “Angels” were thrown down with him…

That seems like a pretty undeniable fact to me…I can see them Devil & his little Helpers in plain sight…


I don’t really see the point of this as Iraq doesn’t have a significant Catholic minority.

Arch Bungle

The purpose is something else.

The Pope is very likely tasked with dividing the Shia along Iraqi-Irani lines.

His purpose is likely to pry the Iraqi Shia power centers away from the Iranian Shia power centers.

This is the same strategy the European colonists have used for 500 years or more.

The velvet glove of Religion covering the iron fist of War.

Rafik Chauhan

This article is usless . this is just to divide iran shia and iraqi shia. but it want happen. doesnt matter what is the diffrence shia always stay toghter. when problem comes. Iran helped shia in iraq with weopeons and support. Sistani made call to shia to wake up and fgiht . so no diffrence. both wanted to save iraq from zionist. But one thing is its time for Relgious rule in iraq both sunni and shia can provide . educated Mrja. bcuz the rule of current goverment are most of them are US puppet and killing iraqi people. Aga sistani should think about this . other wise iraqi future will not be strong . till this US are there . one think i dont understand why Aga sistani dint declare to remove US troop and coalation from iraq who are the main sponser of terrissiom.

Arch Bungle

this is just to divide iran shia and iraqi shia. but it want happen.

It is already happening, Al Sadr is already not on the best terms with Iranian Shia. When previously he was very friendly to them.


If the Ayatollah is gonna be there you better make sure to shutdown any US air activity, lest they try to murder him too. At this point I wouldn’t put anything past those psychopaths.

Arch Bungle

The Zionists have succeeded in dividing the Muslim world along Sunni-Shia lines.

The Pope is there to divide the Shia along the Irani Shia and Iraqi Shia lines …

Divide an conquer, that is all there is to building empire.

When in doubt, divide, then conquer.

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