On November 28, Rusisa’s Borei II-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine Knyaz Vladimir reportedly started the builder’s trials near Severomorsk. Knyaz Vladimir has improved communications, lower noise levels, and better crew habitability in comparison with Borei I-class submarines. The submarine will be reportedly armed with 16 Bulava missiles with ten nuclear warheads atop each.
On December 1, Iran launched its domestically-built frigate, Sahand. The warship has a flight deck for helicopters, torpedo launchers, anti-aircraft and anti-ship guns, surface-to-surface and surface-to-air missiles as well as electronic warfare capabilities. Sahand is the third of Mowj-class frigates built by Iran after Jamaran and Damavand. However, she has enhanced operational capabilities and size. Pro-Irainan media claim that the new warship is twice stronger in terms of offensive and defensive features than previous ones.
On November 29, Iran launched 2 Ghadir-class submarines during a ceremony at the southern port city of Bandar Abbas. The submarines, which are capable of launching subsurface-to-surface missiles, torpedoes and mines, would be used by Iran to secure its maritime borders in the Persian Gulf, according to pro-government media.