Chinese Searching For Flaws In The US Air Force’s B-21 “Raider” Strategic Bomber

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Chinese Searching For Flaws In The US Air Force’s B-21 “Raider” Strategic Bomber

Written by Maksim Kazanin; Originally appeared at VPK, translated by AK exclusively for SouthFront

Chinese experts search for flaws in American bomber under development

According to workers at the Chinese Modern National Defense and Safety Research Center (MNDSRC), the US Air Force’s B-21 “Raider” strategic bomber is designed with the ability to destroy the Dongfeng-21 and Dongfeng-26 mobile ballistic missile launchers. The Dongfeng-21 and 26 are intended for battle against naval groups 1800-2600 kilometers from the Chinese coastline.

The Chinese analysts note that the B-21’s capabilities include:

  • carrying long-range conventional weapons payload for use on strategic targets
  • carrying nuclear weapons payload for use on critical defense infrastructure
  • high-altitude (20,000 meters and up) detection of ballistic missile launches while on patrol
  • destruction of mobile ballistic ground and rail launch systems
  • establishment of air corridors through anti-aircraft defense systems over enemy territory

What is the “Raider” capable of?

Tasked with launching conventional strikes against defensive infrastructure, the B-21 strategic bomber will carry out bombardments of airfields, missile bases, radio-electric intelligence centers, control centers, and ammo depots. After breaking through antiaircraft defenses, the B-21 will use onboard radar and laser scans of the Earth’s surface to locate targets. To destroy these targets, it may use small, high intensity bombs (weighing 139 kilograms a piece) and carry up to 90 pieces in its payload.

Chinese experts expect that the B-21’s onboard radar will be a modified version of the AN/APG-77 which is capable of carrying out more than 20 tasks such as elevation tracking, correction of navigation parameters, searching for and identifying targets, safeguarding aerial refueling and bomb release. The AN/APG-77 radar has consistently demonstrated its reliability in conditions of strong radio-electric and magnetic interference and the new version will likely also have jamming capabilities which frees the designers from having to install additional equipment for electronic warfare. In the opinion of Chinese physicists, American designers are developing an ionization system which will surround the aircraft, hiding it completely from radar detection.

The second task of the bomber could be to carry “Long-Range Stand-Off” (LRSO) cruise missiles tipped with either conventional or nuclear warheads. The US Air Force intends to have these weapons operational in 2030. The B-21 payload will probably have capacity for 9 to 18 tons of munitions depending on the type carried.

The third task will be carried out by flying at subsonic speeds (950 kilometers per hour) at high altitudes (over 20 thousand meters) and with the help of the infra-red search and track (IRST) system which was tested on the YAL-1A aircraft carrier laser weapon. It allows for the detection of ballistic rocket launches up to 800 kilometers away.

Chinese experts note that the maximum flight range of the B-21 without refueling is about 9300 kilometers and the radius of a combat patrol is 4600 kilometers. However, to engage targets on the territory of the People’s Republic of China and specifically the southern, eastern, and central zones of the Chinese missile forces, the bombers will have to be based in Guam or Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean. The first option is 2175 nautical miles from Beijing and 2900 nautical miles from the central missile zone in Delingha. The second option leaves open the possibility of flights towards China or Iran. The B-21 could refuel at Elmendorf in Alaska, Hawaii, or in Australia.

According to MNDSRC analysts, at first the B-21 project called for the use of four F-118 GE-100 engines (also used on the F-22). However, for simplicity and to increase the reliability of the fuel system, two F-135 PW-400 engines were chosen. They will deliver a sustained maximum speed of Mach 0.85 – 0.95 and the ability to go to Mach 1.5 for up to 30 minutes.

It is likely that several air-to-air missiles will be included in the payload of the bomber in case it has to defend itself as the B-21 lacks maneuverability in the face of attack by enemy fighters. Chinese experts admit that currently the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) can only intercept enemy aircraft at high altitudes thanks to the Russian SU-30MKK and the SU-30MK2. The Chinese media has stated that the Chengdu J-10 lacks the rate of climb and high flight ceiling necessary to safeguard the air borders of the state from intruders.

A pricey vehicle

Northrop Grumman won the contract to develop the B-21. It is valued at 80 billion dollars, with each aircraft coming in at 564 million dollars (equivalent to five F-35s). The first aircraft should enter service with the US Air Force in 10 years with 80-100 (120 by some sources) planned in total. For comparison, the B-2 Spirit strategic bomber cost 1.157 billion dollars.

In order to reduce development costs, Northrop Grumman designers borrowed parts from other trusted vehicles…

  • from the F-35: engine, onboard computer, cockpit hardware (multipurpose display), communication system, navigation (with double back-up), weapons control, life support;
  • from the B-2 strategic bomber: radar, landing gear, bomb bay doors, power supply system, pilot bailout system;
  • from the F-15E: electrical wiring, fuel system;
  • from the F/A-18E/F electronic warfare aircraft: hydraulics.

Several elements of the Boing 737 chassis will also be used. All of this allows for reduced costs in the maintenance of the B-21. The cost of one flight of the B-2 during military operations in Kosovo, Iraq, and Afghanistan cost 150 million dollars.

According to PLAAF experts, the takeoff weight is projected to be 120 tons, however, American media reports it to be between 68 – 80 tons, meaning that the bomb payload can vary from 5.5 to 9.1 tons and the radius of combat patrols will not be greater than 4000 kilometers. —- It is worth it to mention that even if the B-21 weighs in at 120 tons, it will still be the lighted strategic bomber in the US Air Force. Chinese experts assume that it will be equipped with a “smart copilot” which will support the pilot with laying the course, situational analysis, weapon choice, and provide voiced notifications about onboard systems.

Keeping the paint from peeling off

Several obstacles stand in the way of American designers which will need to be solved in order to have stealth capabilities or to even be invisible to radar and in the optical spectrum.

It will be necessary to test the quality of new radar absorbing materials which will cover the surface of the bomber. Similar substances lose their properties very quickly in high temperatures and high precipitation, and can be ignited by lightning. Lockheed Martin experts modified their radar absorbent material for the F-35 because they found that it had burned off around the thrusters.

The only facilities where radar absorbent coating can be reapplied are at Whiteman Air Force Base. Air Force specialists regularly “repaint” active B-2s and experiment with chemical formulas to try and find a more durable material since the compounds lose their properties after about 20 flights. Significantly large chips regularly occur in the surface of the fuselage which increases the surface area of the aircraft which is visible to radar.

The B-21 is intended to have not more than 0.7 square meters of radar visible surface, below which an aircraft can operate unseen by modern radars. If an aircraft has 5 square meters of radar visible surface there is no point on sending it on a mission. It will be necessary to store the B-21 in hangars for inspection and repairs to the surface coating.

American chemists must develop a coating which guarantees radar invisibility but also scatters sunlight.

In conclusion we will note that only a few brigades of the Chinese military are equipped with modern very high frequency JY-26 radars capable of detecting aircraft like the B-21, F-22, and F-35 at a range of 500 kilometers.

Maksim Kazanin is an associate professor of regional studies and foreign policy at the Russian State University for the Humanities and a Candidate of Sciences

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  • John

    Well, something tells me, that by the time this bird becomes fully operational, it will not be much of a threat. Telling everybody one’s plans and intentions, is pretty much guaranteed failure. The Chinese seem to know way too much about this aircraft already. Successful warfare cannot be conducted devoid of surprise. But, it’s just my opinion.

  • Alberto Campos

    It will borrow F-35’s onboard computer? So all is said about its success. The Chinese don’t have to bother much.

    • 888mladen .

      Well a pilot can always reboot it in mid air.

      • Nexusfast123

        He will get a message from the logistics system shutting the plane down along with a message to call the friendly Indian help centre.

  • Peter Moy

    Perpetual provocation, intimidation and war is the main focus of US foreign policy. The US military arsenal is many times more than what is needed for national defense. Yes there are bad people in the world like terrorists, but the US already has superiority over any of these groups. It just needs smart and clear decision making and goals in order to defeat them.

  • jeffrey exposito

    The Chinese know how to tell a fairytale. The fact of the matter is all that they have said is either gleaned from leaked information or just based on pure speculation. By all accounts the B21 will be an extremely advanced and capable bomber with superior stealth and electronic warfare capabilities.

  • 888mladen .

    Serbian Air Defense Forces shot at least one B-2 bomber as well as one F-117 with Soviet era Neva SAM’s in 1999 using long wave radars. It seems it’s still a mystery how they did it,

    • Nexusfast123

      Actually there are lots of articles. Seems to boil down to two things. Tweaking the long wave radars of Russian equipment and knowing where the planes would be as the ‘tasking’ was unencrypted. Not too hard if NATO is dumb enough to tell you where they will be and at what time.

      • Rick0Shea

        ‘security by obscurity’ or ‘security by obfuscation’ — it’s easy to convince yourself that your systems are so complicated and high-tech, that no one but yourself/yourselves could ever know how they work as you have implemented them – let alone break into them.

  • Rick0Shea

    Countries at war always seem to have spies in the vicinity of their enemy’s air bases – relaying real time information about departures and arrivals. Low tech, tried and true strategy that all the high tech coatings and ionizing shield gizmos in the world won’t defeat.

    All that aside, if China and the US go to war, conventional weapons like the B-21 Raider are going to be made moot by giant ICBMs with multiple nuclear warheads and decoys. If the B-21s get off the ground, there will be no intact runways anywhere on earth for them to land should they be ‘lucky’ enough to make it back in one piece.

  • Nexusfast123

    Another boondoggle coming up. Billions more will be wasted.

  • Joseph Scott

    “The B-21 is intended to have not more than 0.7 square meters of radar
    visible surface, below which an aircraft can operate unseen by modern
    radars.”

    This is a highly misleading statement. There is no magical number below which aircraft disappear from radar. Rather, the range at which the radar has a given probability of detection varies by the cube root of the radar cross section size. So, if some radar set x had a 50% probability of detection (putting a ping on the board) at say, 500km vs. the 5m^2 ‘unflyable’ aircraft, it would have a 50% pDet against the desired 0.7m^2 minimum at 307km. It is not an on/off proposition, the way the article implies.