Battle For Oil Revenue: Iraqi-Kurdish Standoff For Kirkuk

Donate

Battle For Oil Revenue: Iraqi-Kurdish Standoff For Kirkuk

Click to see the full-size map

Last night, clashes erupted between Iraqi government forces and the Kurdish Peshmerga, a military force of the separatist Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), in the countryside of Kirkuk city in northern Iraq.

The city and its oil-rich countryside are now controlled by KRG forces. In turn, government troops are aiming to restore the federal govrnment control over the area.

The KRG-linked media argues that the Peshmerga is defending a democratic will of the Kirkuk people [Kirkuk has never been an official part of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region]. The federal government says that it’s going to restore the law and order in the area.

Indeed, the oil is one of the key reasons behind  the ongoing tesnsions:

The specificity of Iraq is that oil reserves are located mainly in two areas – the north (Kurdistan Region and Kirkuk) and south (field near the ports of the Persian Gulf). The main export routes for Iraq are through the Persian Gulf and Turkish ports. Refineries are located in central Iraq (Baghdad) and near Kirkuk (Baiji refinery). So, the pipes unite ​​Kirkuk, Baghdad and ports in the south, export pipelines are sent to Turkey and Syria.

The main national strategic of oil pipeline is a pipeline from the Kirkuk fields to the Persian Gulf. The pipeline passes through the capital of the country and can be operated in reverse direction, delivering raw materials from the southern fields near the Persian Gulf to Baghdad.

The most interesting situation has already happened with the main export pipeline between Iraq and Turkey. There are two pipelines, one is controlled by the central government Iraq; the second one is built by the government of Kurdistan Region. After the commissioning of its own pipeline in May 2014 Erbil began independent supply of energy to Turkey, by passing Baghdad. Since then, Kurdish autonomy has been constantly increasing oil exports in its pipeline . In September 2015 the volume of domestic exports reached 602 th. barrels. / day.

In recent years there has constantly been a lot of problems with the export of resources to Turkey. And the main reason is blowing up pipes in the Turkish area. Only in August 2015, exports of Kurdish oil fell by 30% compared to July due to the fact that the pipeline was closed for 9 days. According to the estimates of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Kurdistan Region,in the period from July to September, the Kurdish autonomy underpaid about $ 500 million because of problems with the Turkish oil pipeline.

The pipeline is expected to be extended From Iraq to the port of Baniyas in Syria. Previously, it was used as an additional export route. However, after the beginning of the civil war, and then the onset of ISIL in Iraq, the pipeline is practically not functioning. [more about the Middle Eastern oil and gas infrastructure HERE]

The KRG sees the oil reserves of Kirkuk province as a key source of the funding for the KRG-held area. Without it, the KRG will have much less chances to success if it decleares independence from Iraq.

Battle For Oil Revenue: Iraqi-Kurdish Standoff For Kirkuk

Click to see the full-size map

Donate

SouthFront

Do you like this content? Consider helping us!

  • MD Ranix

    the oil fields belong to iraq … nobody has the right to say otherwise

  • AMHants

    Good luck Iraq. Who goes goes straight for the natural resources of a nation and tries to claim them? There again, follow the money and who is behind them.

  • AlexanderAmproz

    The US/Zionists want to grab all in-betwen the Nile and Mesopotamia
    to resurrected the legendary Never existed “Great Israel”
    Kurds are Proxy at the best !
    ===========================================

    Zionist nationalist myth of enforced exile

    Israel deliberately forgets its history

    An Israeli historian suggests the diaspora was the consequence, not of the expulsion of the Hebrews from Palestine, but of proselytising across north Africa, southern Europe and the Middle East

    by Schlomo Sand

    Le Monde diplomatiqueIsrael deliberately forgets its history ↑

    Every Israeli knows that he or she is the direct and exclusive descendant of a Jewish people which has existed since it received the Torah (1) in Sinai. According to this myth, the Jews escaped from Egypt and settled in the Promised Land, where they built the glorious kingdom of David and Solomon, which subsequently split into the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. They experienced two exiles: after the destruction of the first temple, in the 6th century BC, and of the second temple, in 70 AD.

    Two thousand years of wandering brought the Jews to Yemen, Morocco, Spain, Germany, Poland and deep into Russia. But, the story goes, they always managed to preserve blood links between their scattered communities. Their uniqueness was never compromised.

    At the end of the 19th century conditions began to favour their return to their ancient homeland. If it had not been for the Nazi genocide, millions of Jews would have fulfilled the dream of 20 centuries and repopulated Eretz Israel, the biblical land of Israel. Palestine, a virgin land, had been waiting for its original inhabitants to return and awaken it. It belonged to the Jews, rather than to an Arab minority that had no history and had arrived there by chance. The wars in which the wandering people reconquered their land were just; the violent opposition of the local population was criminal.

    This interpretation of Jewish history was developed as talented, imaginative historians built on surviving fragments of Jewish and Christian religious memory to construct a continuous genealogy for the Jewish people. Judaism’s abundant historiography encompasses many different approaches.

    But none have ever questioned the basic concepts developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Discoveries that might threaten this picture of a linear past were marginalised. The national imperative rejected any contradiction of or deviation from the dominant story. University departments exclusively devoted to “the history of the Jewish people”, as distinct from those teaching what is known in Israel as general history, made a significant contribution to this selective vision. The debate on what constitutes Jewishness has obvious legal implications, but historians ignored it: as far as they are concerned, any descendant of the people forced into exile 2,000 years ago is a Jew.

    Nor did these official investigators of the past join the controversy provoked by the “new historians” from the late 1980s. Most of the limited number of participants in this public debate were from other disciplines or non-academic circles: sociologists, orientalists, linguists, geographers, political scientists, literary academics and archaeologists developed new perspectives on the Jewish and Zionist past. Departments of Jewish history remained defensive and conservative, basing themselves on received ideas. While there have been few significant developments in national history over the past 60 years (a situation unlikely to change in the short term), the facts that have emerged face any honest historian with fundamental questions.

    Founding myths shaken

    Is the Bible a historical text? Writing during the early half of the 19th century, the first modern Jewish historians, such as Isaak Markus Jost (1793-1860) and Leopold Zunz (1794-1886), did not think so. They regarded the Old Testament as a theological work reflecting the beliefs of Jewish religious communities after the destruction of the first temple. It was not until the second half of the century that Heinrich Graetz (1817-91) and others developed a “national” vision of the Bible and transformed Abraham’s journey to Canaan, the flight from Egypt and the united kingdom of David and Solomon into an authentic national past. By constant repetition, Zionist historians have subsequently turned these Biblical “truths” into the basis of national education.

    But during the 1980s an earthquake shook these founding myths. The discoveries made by the “new archaeology” discredited a great exodus in the 13th century BC. Moses could not have led the Hebrews out of Egypt into the Promised Land, for the good reason that the latter was Egyptian territory at the time. And there is no trace of either a slave revolt against the pharaonic empire or of a sudden conquest of Canaan by outsiders.

    Nor is there any trace or memory of the magnificent kingdom of David and Solomon. Recent discoveries point to the existence, at the time, of two small kingdoms: Israel, the more powerful, and Judah, the future Judea. The general population of Judah did not go into 6th century BC exile: only its political and intellectual elite were forced to settle in Babylon. This decisive encounter with Persian religion gave birth to Jewish monotheism.

    Then there is the question of the exile of 70 AD. There has been no real research into this turning point in Jewish history, the cause of the diaspora. And for a simple reason: the Romans never exiled any nation from anywhere on the eastern seaboard of the Mediterranean. Apart from enslaved prisoners, the population of Judea continued to live on their lands, even after the destruction of the second temple. Some converted to Christianity in the 4th century, while the majority embraced Islam during the 7th century Arab conquest.

    Most Zionist thinkers were aware of this: Yitzhak Ben Zvi, later president of Israel, and David Ben Gurion, its first prime minister, accepted it as late as 1929, the year of the great Palestinian revolt. Both stated on several occasions that the peasants of Palestine were the descendants of the inhabitants of ancient Judea (2).

    Proselytising zeal

    But if there was no exile after 70 AD, where did all the Jews who have populated the Mediterranean since antiquity come from? The smokescreen of national historiography hides an astonishing reality. From the Maccabean revolt of the mid-2nd century BC to the Bar Kokhba revolt of the 2nd century AD, Judaism was the most actively proselytising religion. The Judeo-Hellenic Hasmoneans forcibly converted the Idumeans of southern Judea and the Itureans of Galilee and incorporated them into the people of Israel. Judaism spread across the Middle East and round the Mediterranean. The 1st century AD saw the emergence in modern Kurdistan of the Jewish kingdom of Adiabene, just one of many that converted.

    The writings of Flavius Josephus are not the only evidence of the proselytising zeal of the Jews. Horace, Seneca, Juvenal and Tacitus were among the Roman writers who feared it. The Mishnah and the Talmud (3) authorised conversion, even if the wise men of the Talmudic tradition expressed reservations in the face of the mounting pressure from Christianity.

    Although the early 4th century triumph of Christianity did not mark the end of Jewish expansion, it relegated Jewish proselytism to the margins of the Christian cultural world. During the 5th century, in modern Yemen, a vigorous Jewish kingdom emerged in Himyar, whose descendants preserved their faith through the Islamic conquest and down to the present day. Arab chronicles tell of the existence, during the 7th century, of Judaised Berber tribes; and at the end of the century the legendary Jewish queen Dihya contested the Arab advance into northwest Africa. Jewish Berbers participated in the conquest of the Iberian peninsula and helped establish the unique symbiosis between Jews and Muslims that characterised Hispano-Arabic culture.

    The most significant mass conversion occurred in the 8th century, in the massive Khazar kingdom between the Black and Caspian seas. The expansion of Judaism from the Caucasus into modern Ukraine created a multiplicity of communities, many of which retreated from the 13th century Mongol invasions into eastern Europe. There, with Jews from the Slavic lands to the south and from what is now modern Germany, they formed the basis of Yiddish culture (4).

    Prism of Zionism

    Until about 1960 the complex origins of the Jewish people were more or less reluctantly acknowledged by Zionist historiography. But thereafter they were marginalised and finally erased from Israeli public memory. The Israeli forces who seized Jerusalem in 1967 believed themselves to be the direct descendents of the mythic kingdom of David rather than – God forbid – of Berber warriors or Khazar horsemen. The Jews claimed to constitute a specific ethnic group that had returned to Jerusalem, its capital, from 2,000 years of exile and wandering.

    This monolithic, linear edifice is supposed to be supported by biology as well as history. Since the 1970s supposedly scientific research, carried out in Israel, has desperately striven to demonstrate that Jews throughout the world are closely genetically related.

    Research into the origins of populations now constitutes a legitimate and popular field in molecular biology and the male Y chromosome has been accorded honoured status in the frenzied search for the unique origin of the “chosen people”. The problem is that this historical fantasy has come to underpin the politics of identity of the state 
of Israel. By validating an essentialist, 
ethnocentric definition of Judaism it encourages a segregation that separates Jews from non-Jews – whether Arabs, Russian immigrants or foreign workers.

    Sixty years after its foundation, Israel refuses to accept that it should exist for the sake of its citizens. For almost a quarter of the population, who are not regarded as Jews, this is not their state legally. At the same time, Israel presents itself as the homeland of Jews throughout the world, even if these are no longer persecuted refugees, but the full and equal citizens of other countries.

    A global ethnocracy invokes the myth of the eternal nation, reconstituted on the land of its ancestors, to justify internal discrimination against its own citizens. It will remain difficult to imagine a new Jewish history while the prism of Zionism continues to fragment everything into an ethnocentric spectrum. But Jews worldwide have always tended to form religious communities, usually by conversion; they cannot be said to share an ethnicity derived from a unique origin and displaced over 20 centuries of wandering.

    The development of historiography and the evolution of modernity were consequences of the invention of the nation state, which preoccupied millions during the 19th and 20th centuries. The new millennium has seen these dreams begin to shatter.

    And more and more academics are analysing, dissecting and deconstructing the great national stories, especially the myths of common origin so dear to chroniclers of the past.

    Schlomo Sand

    • Solomon Krupacek

      may i ask you not copy wjole articles, but the link?

      • lena ivaniva

        U israeli-Bitch

        • Wahid Algiers

          Solomon is no friend of the jews. He wants a quick victory of the SAA and allies.

      • George King

        Here you go Solomon; When we don’t question the nature of mainstream propaganda and ask the questions why, we neither seek nor shall receive the understanding of truth. Then we remain subject to manipulation by those who may not have the peoples best interest at heart.
        Shlomo Sand is an Israeli Emeritus Professor of History at Tel Aviv University. Wikipedia
        Born: September 10, 1946 (age 71), Linz, Austria
        Education: Tel Aviv University
        Era: Contemporary history
        Main interest: Jewish history
        Notable ideas: Anti-Zionism

        His past was Jewish, but today he sees Israel as one of the most racist societies in the western world. … During the first half of the 20th century, my father abandoned Talmudic school, permanently stopped going to synagogue, and regularly expressed his aversion to rabbis.

        Of course he is not alone, most notably when Einstein was offered the Israeli presidency, Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion stated, “I’ve had to offer him the post because it was impossible not to, but if he accepts we are in for trouble.” In a letter written in the same year, Einstein compared the Zionists’ project with that of the Pilgrims, noting, “how tyrannical, intolerant and aggressive [they] became after a short while.” And in Einstein’s last media interview, which ran in the New York Post a month before his death, he stated “We had great hopes for Israel at first. We thought it might be better than other nations, but it is no better.

        Einstein’s opposition to Israel was widely known and reported on during his life. In fact, the myth of Einstein’s support of Israel was born the day after Einstein’s death in his obituary in The New York Times, which shamelessly wrote that he “championed” the establishment of the Jewish state. This contradicted decades of reporting from the “Paper of Record.” Jerome provides some examples, including a 1930 article headlined “Einstein attacks British Zion Policy,” a 1938 article stating Einstein was “Against Palestine State” and a 1946 article stating Einstein “Bars Jewish State.

        The only question that really matters: Why? Why have we not Known?

        Here is your link:
        https://www.opednews.com/articles/The-only-question-that-re-by-George-King-Co-existence_Death_Fascist_Israel-170410-906.html

        • Ronald

          Did you catch this on Amazon bans “Dissident Materials” ( holo )
          http://codoh.com/library/document/4266/

          Not only dd Amazon ban or “delete” hundreds of books , but also deleted all book reviews of those books .

          • George King

            Thank you for the link,

            Washington Post writer Fredrick Kunkle on Friday ripped the newspaper’s owner Jeff Bezos in a scathing op-ed, accusing the Amazon founder of mistreating workers within his business empire.

            Kunkle, who writes for the Washington Post’s Metro desk and serves as co-chair of the Washington-Baltimore News Guild, challenged Bezos for expressing a desire to increase his philanthropic efforts despite a record of “treating [his employees] poorly.” In the op-ed, he writes that Bezos “should remember that his vast wealth came in part from labor.”

            “As the owner of an institution that’s critical to democracy, he should go out of his way to set a tone of progressive stewardship toward employees in all his businesses,” Kunkle wrote in an op-ed published by the Huffington Post Opens a New Window. . “Instead, Bezos has shown that he views his employees as parts in a high-tech machine, that income inequality is someone else’s problem, and that modern corporations owe little more to their employees than a paycheck.”

            Kunkle accuses Bezos of various missteps within the Post newsroom, including cutting retirement benefits, freezing a company pension plan and holding severance payments “hostage” by requiring outgoing employees to drop any legal claims to receive payment.

            The Washington Post declined to comment on Kunkle’s op-ed.

            Bezos, who purchased the Washington Post in 2013, previously drew criticism in 2015 after a New York Times Opens a New Window. expose criticized Amazon’s “bruising” workplace culture. The article alleged that Amazon’s employees “are encouraged to tear apart one another’s ideas in meeting, toil long and late, and held to standards that the company boasts are ‘unreasonably high.’”

            The New York Times story drew a sharp rebuke from Amazon. Company spokesman Jay Carney defended the company in an open letter, while Bezos penned a separate letter to shareholders explaining his view on corporate culture.

            Kunkle referenced the New York Times story in his op-ed, stating that “Amazon’s history of dodging taxes, its mistreatment of workers, and its ruthlessness toward even the smallest competitors have been well documented.”

            I have not had the time to research this link but it does ask a question as to policies and practices from the governing board of Amazon / WAPO.
            https://thezog.info/who-controls-amazon/

            Although I am no fan of Orwellian MSM in general (Ministry of Truth”) you can find some truth nuggets maybe 1% buried in 99% lies but it is a waste of time for the most part other than helping see the real picture of reality.

            http://www.foxbusiness.com/features/2017/09/01/washington-post-writer-slams-jeff-bezos-in-op-ed-for-mistreating-workers.html

          • AlexanderAmproz

            “truth nuggets maybe 1% buried in 99%”

            Osama Ben-Laden
            inherited 20 Millions from his father,
            it’s became two Billions in the Medias…

          • Ronald

            “Amazon’s history ” of low management practices is spot lighted here .
            Not only did they stop selling 69 – 729 books on the holocaust , “hate literature” and all that . They also deleted any book reviews on those books , so , basically un-creating history . Ministy of Truth with Zion .

        • Brother Ma

          I knew about schlomo sand but not about einstein.thanks george.

        • AlexanderAmproz

          Maybe you will like these :

          The New Media World Order
          http://www.voltairenet.org/article195554.html

          No Blow back but a Nato claw back of censorship in Germany
          http://www.voltairenet.org/article197993.html

          European Union attacks freedom of choice
          http://www.voltairenet.org/article198181.html

          “THE ART OF WAR”
          The West: Rewriting the Past
          http://www.voltairenet.org/article194714.html

          The NATO campaign against freedom of expression
          http://www.voltairenet.org/article194344.html

          Assassinated by the CIA !
          Udo Ulfkotte (20 January 1960 – 13 January 2017) was a German journalist. He was an assistant editor for a German main daily newspaper, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) for several years until 2003.[1] Between 1997 and his death he published a dozen books, including a number with right-wing populist,[2] [3] Islamophobic[4] and conspiracy theory[5] themes. In articles and books (including his 2014 book, Gekaufte Journalisten (“Bought Journalists”), he has maintained that journalists (including himself) and leading newspapers published material that had been fed to them, or bought, by the CIA and other Western intelligence and propaganda agencies.
          https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Udo_Ulfkotte

          Former Newspaper Editor Who Exposed CIA Found Dead
          https://geopolitics.co/2017/01/20/former-newspaper-editor-who-exposed-cia-found-dead/

      • AlexanderAmproz

        Sorry, I am used to Filipinos, if not copy,
        they are self-satisfied by their ignorance.
        To keep them idiot’s, Discus wouldn’t allowed links…

    • Brother Ma

      Thanks alexander.there was this guy called Matt who kept saying i was crapping on about himaryote jewish kingdom killing christians .it was schlomo who taught me that.

  • dutchnational

    Breaking : it seems PUK leadership cowed to Iranian pressure and ordered PUK pesh merga to stand down, betraying both the people of Kirkuk and those that came to help. With the gaps in the line, Iraqi army could enter city.

    People furious at PUK. Source : Jenan Moussa, reporter on the ground.

    • Trustin Judeau

      Yes they did . Good decision from PUK – they will get reward

    • Daniel

      Betraying the invading force of pesh merga

    • Solomon Krupacek

      kurds automatically will lose everything, if try to create artificial state. i wrote you 100 times, i write you101st time.

    • Barba_Papa

      That feeling you now have, of impending doom, of outrage, that’s probably how the rest of us feel when they read about how the Kurds are pulling shenanigans in Syria. That feeling you have whenever you gloat about those shenanigans, that’s probably what we are feeling right now.

      Now we all know what we’re feeling, lets keep the gloating to a minimum. People are going to die soon that needn’t have died if cooler heads had prevailed.

    • Garga

      PUK is the party Mam Jalal created with some other like-minded people. They care about the well-being of Kurds, not keeping Talebani in power illegally.
      They did what any sane politician would do. There’s no betrayal here, unless you count the land grab and creating chaos the Kurds true aim.

  • Igor Dano

    Simple solution:Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey have a common enemy. Go and get rid of him.

  • Kawa Asinger

    Peshmerge is not retreating, Hashid has lost many fighters. There is alot of fake news being spread right now. Peshmerge commanders are saying be aware of fake news, Haider Abadi himself said so.